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Henry Nichols, 8th Great-Grandfather

September 6, 2019

My eighth great-grandfather was born in Glamorganshire, Wales in 1678.  Rev. Henry Nicholls received a  B.A.in 1703 and an M.A. in 1705 from Jesus College, Oxford, Wales. He was sent to Pennsylvania, 1702-1708, during the reign of King James II. In 1707 he married my eighth great-grandmother, Elizabeth Gatchell of Chester, Pennsylvania.

Henry Nichols was the first residential missionary to Pennsylvannia for the “Society for Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts”, arriving in 1703. His churches were located in Chester, Concord, Radnor, and Montgomery. The Chester Church is described as of good brick fabric, one of the neatest on the continent, furnished with handsome furniture and rews. The members were regular and constant in divine worship, and they contributed 60 pounds a year toward their pastor’s support. The Radnor Church is still in excellent preservation, known as St. David’s Church and has been in use since 1708. Rev Nichols requested a transfer in 1708 and became rector at St. Michael’s Parish Church. Talbot Co., MD – a post he occupied until his death. For years, all records of his life were lost. The early church books had disappeared! Until June 1878 when workmen, employed to demolish the old church building, found his tomb under the Chancel in good preservation.

The following is a translation of the Latin inscription found on the slab over his tomb: “Here lies the remains of Henry Nicols, M. A., formerly a Fellow of Jesus College, Oxford, England, and a pastor of this church for 41 years – most unworthy. Born April 1st, 1678; died Feb. 12, 1748. Save his soul, O Christ for Thy own merits. Tread upon salt without savor.” (Henry has ordered these works to be inscribed before his death.) A number of his descendents still worship at St. Michael’s Church. They placed a tablet there to his memory where he ministered for so long. (From the Historical Magazine of the Protestant Episcopal Church, 1943, by Mary Clement, M. A., Principal of the Girls County School Board, Bridgend, Glamorganshire, Wales.)

 

Rev. Henry Nichols (1678 – 1748)
8th great-grandfather
William Nicholls (1704 – 1776)
Son of Rev. Henry Nichols
Amos Nicholls (1740 – )
Son of William Nicholls
Amos Nicholls (1780 – )
Son of Amos Nicholls
Amos Nicholls (1808 – 1868)
Son of Amos Nicholls
Emiline P Nicholls (1837 – )
Daughter of Amos Nicholls
Harriet Peterson (1856 – 1933)
Daughter of Emiline P Nicholls
Sarah Helena Byrne (1878 – 1962)
Daughter of Harriet Peterson
Olga Fern Scott (1897 – 1968)
Daughter of Sarah Helena Byrne
Richard Arden Morse (1920 – 2004)
Son of Olga Fern Scott
Pamela Morse
I am the daughter of Richard Arden Morse

 

Chief Amatoya “Water Conjurer”, 11th Great-Grandfather

July 4, 2018

Chief Amatoya "Water Conjurer"

Chief Amatoya “Water Conjurer”

Chief Amatoya "Water Conjurer"

Chief Amatoya “Water Conjurer”

My 11th great-grandfather was half British and half Shawnee.  He married a Shawnee woman and lived as a leader of her tribe. Natives were treated very badly by the colonists, who normally thought of them as inferior.  This is one success story I am pleased to have in my family’s history.

Trader Carpenter (Amatoya / Moytoy I) married a Shawnee named Locha in 1668. Trader’s sister Pasmere Carpenter married the grandfather of Cornstalk Hokolesqua (Shawnee) in 1660. That same year the clan was driven south by the Iroquois. They moved along the Tennessee river, starting the villages of Running Water (where Thomas died in 1675), Nickajack, Lookout Mountain, Crowtown and Chota. Chota was created as a merging place of refuge for people of all tribes, history or color. It became similar to a capital for the Cherokee Nation. These villages had grown to about 2000 people by 1670 when the Carpenter clan moved to Great Tellico. Here Trader (Amatoya / Motoy I) married Quatsy of the Wolf Clan in 1680. Though Amatoya (Trader) was chief of the above mentioned villages, it was his son Moytoy II (sometimes called “Trader-Tom”) most people refer to as Moytoy and who many claim was crowned “Emperor of the Cherokee”.

CHRONOLOGY
1540
Hernando De Soto’s expedition to the Mississippi River is the first time Europeans are seen by American Indians in Kentucky.
1629
British colonists in Virginia establish a trade network with Cherokee living in the Appalachian Mountains.
1690
King William’s War begins.
1697
The Ryswick Treaty is signed at the end of King William’s War. Territories remain the same as before the War.

1702
The Cherokees and Creeks side with the French during Queen Anne’s War.
1716
Cherokee strengthen their alliance with the British.
1717
This date is engraved in a sandstone rockshelter in eastern Kentucky.
1730
Cherokee Chiefs Attakullakulla, Clogoittah, Kollannah, Onancona, Oukah Ulah, Skalilosken Ketagustah, and Tathtowe travel to Great Britain with Alexander Cuming.
1722
The Treaty of Albany is made between the Haudenosaunee and Great Britain. The Haudenosaunee are joined by the Tuscarora and they expand by alliance and conquest to control an area from southern Canada to Kentucky.

Chief Amatoya “Water Conjurer” (Trader Tom CARPENTER) aka MOYTOY I (1635 – 1693)
11th great-grandfather
Aganonitsi Quatsy Woman Wolf ClanTellico Cherokee Tellico (1650 – 1692)
daughter of Chief Amatoya “Water Conjurer” (Trader Tom CARPENTER) aka MOYTOY I
Delaware Indian Fivekiller (1674 – 1741)
son of Aganonitsi Quatsy Woman Wolf ClanTellico Cherokee Tellico
Solomon John Cherokee Kimborough (1665 – 1720)
son of Delaware Indian Fivekiller
Mourning Kimbrough (1689 – 1756)
daughter of Solomon John Cherokee Kimborough
Jane Jeanette Little (1713 – 1764)
daughter of Mourning Kimbrough
Andrew Armour (1740 – 1801)
son of Jane Jeanette Little
William Armor (1775 – 1852)
son of Andrew Armour
William Armer (1790 – 1837)
son of William Armor
Thomas Armer (1825 – 1900)
son of William Armer
Lucinda Jane Armer (1847 – 1939)
daughter of Thomas Armer
George Harvey Taylor (1884 – 1941)
son of Lucinda Jane Armer
Ruby Lee Taylor (1922 – 2008)
daughter of George Harvey Taylor
Pamela Morse
I am the daughter of Ruby Lee Taylor

Amatoya Trader Moytoy was a half white half Shawnee who went on to be a prominent chief and leader for the Cherokee people.  His family line would lead the Cherokee for many years to come.  This was a testement to the views of the Cherokee people before being abused by the English for many years.  They took in a English settler as one of there own, He wed a Shawnee woman and became a member of the tribe.

#SelfCareSunday Family History Oddysey

September 10, 2017 2 Comments

You may wonder why I am making family history the theme of today’s self care post. Many of you know I am an avid fan of genealogy study. I have been involved since 2008 with ancestry.com. My parents were both dead when I began my quest. I am including this advice to you on self care because if your ancestors are still living you have an opportunity to excavate their memories before it is too late.  The elders crave attention and are often neglected socially.  Asking them questions about their youth and their ancestors is not only a great way to include them socially, but learn and grow in the process. Pictures, stories, and either video or audio interviews will become priceless tools for future generations.  Once you know what your own family did in history, you have a much better sense of world events.

I was able to gather some photos and direct information form my uncle by marriage.  His wife, my father’s sister, had left behind some old photos.  His kids were adopted, so nobody really wanted the pictures.  He gathered up some boxes and an overnight bag, and we hit the road in Kansas.  I picked him and the photos up in Wichita at his apartment.  We drove to Bartlesville, OK to spend the night at the Inn At Price Tower, in Frank Lloyd Wright’s only executed skyscraper.  We rented a two story very swanky apartment with loads of copper furniture and accents.  There is so much copper in the construction of the building, inside and out, that they cannot get wifi to work at all.  We rode the tiny copper elevator up to the copper cocktail lounge for a drink.  After dinner on the town we sat in our living room on the first floor of our suite to review the photos.  He told stories about most of them, and I chose the ones I wanted to take.  It was a fun time for both of us.  After breakfast with a view we left the Tower before the tour of the gallery and building, which I am sure is excellent.

Uncle Paul and I were off next to Independence, KS, where my father was born.  There was a library and courthouse in town with genealogical information.  I found some good material, including my maternal great-grandmother’s entire probate file, which was at the courthouse.  I chose the pages I wanted, and the clerk of the court made copies and mailed them to me for a small fee. I learned a lot from reading the entire file, but selected pages with important facts or handwriting of my great-grandmother.  Uncle Paul and I visited Coffeyville, KS and the vicinity where my family had settled, right next to the Cherokee Nation.  Since he had lived around there most of his life, my uncle had lots of stories to tell about the past.  It was fascinating, even when it did not involve my direct ancestors.  The Cherokee Strip, which is the name of this area on the border of Kansas and Oklahoma,  was the wild wild west, and my ancestors were part of it.

After I dropped my uncle back in Wichita he was able to stay in his own apartment only a few months longer.  His health deteriorated to the point that he needed constant care.  His daughter is a nurse, lived nearby, and was able to handle his care with the best possible circumstances.  She got a job as a supervisor at the facility where he lived.  After he passed away she moved to Arkansas, where she was born and my grandparents both died.  There was some kind of full circle there.  I will always be happy I went on that adventure seeking my ancestors.  You don’t need to take a road trip to interview somebody in your family.  Pick up the phone and learn more about your heritage and history by asking your elders, before it is no longer possible. I wish I had done more of that.

The act of reaching out to your elders to learn about the history of your family can be healing as well as enlightening to all participants.  I advise that you consider this because photos and stories will be lost forever if nobody collects them.  Take care of family history to take care of yourself. You can do this on line with digital records, and if you are lucky you can also do it with living relatives.  If you are super lucky you can go in person to the places your ancestors lived in the company of someone who knows a lot about the place.

 

Henry Smith, Tenth Great-Grandfather

June 28, 2017 1 Comment

Ye History of Ye Town of Greenwich

Ye History of Ye Town of Greenwich

My tenth great-grandfather, Henry Smith, was born in 1619 in St. Mary-Adermanbury, in London,England.  He died  5 Jul 1687 in Stamford,Fairfield,CT.  He was a minister. While no proof positive exists for the name of his first wife, circumstantially it is quite possible that she is Ann Jackson, who came to America [of record 27 Jul 1635] on the ship “Princess”, along with (a) Henry Smith; he age 22; she age 23. The age of 22 for Henry Smith of the ship “Princess” equates to a birth year of about 1613, the probable birth year of Henry Smith in this writing. In the absence of a verifiable source for this theory, Ann Jackson is placed in this writing, but with question. I am descended from his second wife, Hannah:

Henry Smith (1619 – 1687)
10th great-grandfather
Hannah Smith (1636 – 1674)
daughter of Henry Smith
Sarah Knapp (1669 – 1750)
daughter of Hannah Smith
Ebenezer Mead (1692 – 1775)
son of Sarah Knapp
Deacon Silas Meade (1730 – 1807)
son of Ebenezer Mead
Abner Mead (1749 – 1810)
son of Deacon Silas Meade
Martha Mead (1784 – 1860)
daughter of Abner Mead
Abner Morse (1808 – 1838)
son of Martha Mead
Daniel Rowland Morse (1838 – 1910)
son of Abner Morse
Jason A Morse (1862 – 1932)
son of Daniel Rowland Morse
Ernest Abner Morse (1890 – 1965)
son of Jason A Morse
Richard Arden Morse (1920 – 2004)
son of Ernest Abner Morse
Pamela Morse
I am  the daughter of Richard Arden Morse

Rev. Henry Smith arrived in Charlestown, MA from England in 1636 (according to Savage). By 1648 he was in Wethersfield, CT. with his second wife and children from his first marriage. Henry was described as a gentleman from a good family. He was the patriarch of what was considered one of the best sustained and accomplished families in New Engalnd.
He was the first recorded minister in Wethersfield, but his ministry was not a happy one. Mr. Clement Chaplin, a Ruling Elder of the church was a man of wealth, prominent and influencial with a majority of the congregation. For many years he involved Henry Smith in difficulities to the point the conflict wa before the General Court. After a long examination of the merits of the case, in 1643 Mr. Chaplin was fined 11 pounds for libeling Henry. But Mr. Chaplin continued to harrass Henry with carious civil suits until again it came before the General Court. Henry was again exonerated and vindicated by the court. Although the conflict did not completely end, there was no further serious issues. However it is believed the the strain of the trails and harrassment brought Henry to an early grave in 1648.

Pequod War

Pequod War

Alexios I Emperor of the Byzantine Empire Comnenus

June 5, 2017 1 Comment

Alexios I

Alexios I

Alexios I Komnenos, or Comnenus (Greek: Αλέξιος Α’ Κομνηνός) (1048 – August 15, 1118), Byzantine emperor (1081–1118), was the son of John Comnenus and Anna Dalassena and the nephew of Isaac I Comnenus (emperor 1057–1059). The military, financial and territorial recovery of the Byzantine Empire began in his reign.
Life
Alexius’ father declined the throne on the abdication of Isaac, who was accordingly succeeded by four emperors of other families between 1059 and 1081. Under one of these emperors, Romanus IV Diogenes (1067–1071), he served with distinction against the Seljuk Turks. Under Michael VII Ducas Parapinaces (1071–1078) and Nicephorus III Botaneiates (1078–1081), he was also employed, along with his elder brother Isaac, against rebels in Asia Minor, Thrace and in Epirus.
Alexius’ mother wielded great influence during his reign, and he is described by his daughter, the historian Anna Comnena, as running next to the imperial chariot that she drove. In 1074, the rebel mercenaries in Asia Minor were successfully subdued, and, in 1078, he was appointed commander of the field army in the West by Nicephorus III. In this capacity, Alexius defeated the rebellions of two successive governors of Dyrrhachium, Nicephorus Bryennius (whose son or grandson later married Alexius’ daughter Anna) and Nicephorus Basilakes. Alexius was ordered to march against his brother-in-law Nicephorus Melissenus in Asia Minor but refused to fight his kinsman. This did not, however, lead to a demotion, as Alexius was needed to counter the expected Norman invasion led by Robert Guiscard near Dyrrhachium.
While the Byzantine troops were assembling for the expedition, Alexius was approached by the Ducas faction at court, who convinced him to join a conspiracy against Nicephorus III. Alexius was duly proclaimed emperor by his troops and marched on Constantinople. Bribing the western mercenaries guarding the city, the rebels entered Constantinople in triumph, meeting little resistance on April 1, 1081. Nicephorus III was forced to abdicate and retire to a monastery, and Patriarch Cosmas I crowned Alexius I emperor on April 4.
During this time, Alexius was rumored to be the lover of Empress Maria of Alania, the daughter of King Bagrat IV of Georgia, who had been successively married to Michael VII Ducas and his successor Nicephorus III Botaneiates, and was renowned for her beauty. Alexius arranged for Maria to stay on the palace grounds. It was also thought that Alexius may have been considering marrying the erstwhile empress. However, his mother consolidated the Ducas family connection by arranging the Emperor’s marriage to Irene Ducaena, granddaughter of the Caesar John Ducas, the uncle of Michael VII, who would not have supported Alexius otherwise. As a measure intended to keep the support of the Ducae, Alexius restored Constantine Ducas, the young son of Michael VII and Maria, as co-emperor and a little later betrothed him to his own first-born daughter Anna, who moved into the Mangana Palace with her fiancé and his mother.
However, this situation changed drastically when Alexius’ first son John II Comnenus was born in 1087: Anna’s engagement to Constantine was dissolved, and she was moved to the main Palace to live with her mother and grandmother. Alexius became estranged from Maria, who was stripped of her imperial title and retired to a monastery, and Constantine Ducas was deprived of his status as co-emperor. Nevertheless, he remained in good relations with the imperial family and succumbed to his weak constitution soon afterwards.
This coin was struck by Alexius during his war against Robert Guiscard.
Byzantine-Norman Wars
Alexius’ long reign of nearly thirty-seven years was full of struggle. At the very outset, he had to meet the formidable attack of the Normans (led by Robert Guiscard and his son Bohemund), who took Dyrrhachium and Corfu, and laid siege to Larissa in Thessaly (see Battle of Dyrrhachium). Alexius suffered several defeats before being able to strike back with success. He enhanced this by bribing the German king Henry IV with 360,000 gold pieces to attack the Normans in Italy, which forced the Normans to concentrate on their defenses at home in 1083–1084. He also secured the alliance of Henry, Count of Monte Sant’Angelo, who controlled the Gargano Peninsula and dated his charters by Alexius’ reign. Henry’s allegiance was to be the last example of Byzantine political control on peninsular Italy. The Norman danger ended for the time being with Robert Guiscard’s death in 1085, and the Byzantines recovered most of their losses.
Alexius had next to deal with disturbances in Thrace, where the heretical sects of the Bogomils and the Paulicians revolted and made common cause with the Pechenegs from beyond the Danube. Paulician soldiers in imperial service likewise deserted during Alexius’ battles with the Normans. As soon as the Norman threat had passed, Alexius set out to punish the rebels and deserters, confiscating their lands. This led to a further revolt near Philippopolis, and the commander of the field army in the west, Gregory Pakourianos, was defeated and killed in the ensuing battle. In 1087 the Pechenegs raided into Thrace and Alexius crossed into Moesia to retaliate but failed to take Dorostolon (Silistra). During his retreat, the emperor was surrounded and worn down by the Pechenegs, who forced him to sign a truce and pay protection money. In 1090 the Pechenegs invaded Thrace again, while the brother-in-law of the Sultan of Rum launched a fleet and attempted to arrange a joing siege of Constantinople with the Pechenegs. Alexius overcame this crisis by entering into an alliance with a horde of 40,000 Cumans, with whose help he crushed the Pechenegs at Levounion in Thrace on April 29, 1091.
The Byzantine Empire at the accession of Alexius I Comnenus, c. 1081
This put an end to the Pecheneg threat, but in 1094 the Cumans began to raid the imperial territories in the Balkans. Led by a pretender claiming to be Constantine Diogenes, a long-dead son of the Emperor Romanos IV, the Cumans crossed the mountains and raided into eastern Thrace until their leader was eliminated at Adrianople. With the Balkans more or less pacified, Alexius could now turn his attention to Asia Minor, which had been almost completely overrun by the Seljuk Turks.
Byzantine-Seljuk Wars
As early as 1090, Alexius had taken reconciliatory measures towards the Papacy, with the intention of seeking western support against the Seljuks. In 1095 his ambassadors appeared before Pope Urban II at the Council of Piacenza. The help which he wanted from the West was simply mercenary forces and not the immense hosts which arrived, to his consternation and embarrassment, after the pope preached the First Crusade at the Council of Clermont later that same year. Not quite ready to supply this number of people as they traversed his territories, the emperor saw his Balkan possessions subjected to further pillage at the hands of his own allies. Alexius dealt with the first disorganized group of crusaders, led by the preacher Peter the Hermit, by sending them on to Asia Minor, where they were massacred by the Turks in 1096.
The second and much more formidable host of crusaders gradually made its way to Constantinople, led in sections by Godfrey of Bouillon, Bohemund of Taranto, Raymond IV of Toulouse and other important members of the western nobility. Alexius used the opportunity of meeting the crusader leaders separately as they arrived and extracting from them oaths of homage and the promise to turn over conquered lands to the Byzantine Empire. Transferring each contingent into Asia, Alexius promised to supply them with provisions in return for their oaths of homage. The crusade was a notable success for Byzantium, as Alexius now recovered for the Byzantine Empire a number of important cities and islands. The crusader siege of Nicaea forced the city to surrender to the emperor in 1097, and the subsequent crusader victory at Dorylaion allowed the Byzantine forces to recover much of western Asia Minor. Here Byzantine rule was reestablished in Chios, Rhodes, Smyrna, Ephesus, Sardis, and Philadelphia in 1097–1099. This success is ascribed by his daughter Anna to his policy and diplomacy, but by the Latin historians of the crusade to his treachery and falseness. In 1099, a Byzantine fleet of 10 ships were sent to assist the Crusaders in capturing Laodicea and other coastal towns as far as Tripoli. The crusaders believed their oaths were made invalid when the Byzantine contingent under Tatikios failed to help them during the siege of Antioch; Bohemund, who had set himself up as Prince of Antioch, briefly went to war with Alexius in the Balkans, but was blockaded by the Byzantine forces and agreed to become Alexius’ vassal by the Treaty of Devol in 1108.
Personal life
During the last twenty years of his life Alexius lost much of his popularity. The years were marked by persecution of the followers of the Paulician and Bogomil heresies—one of his last acts was to publicly burn on the stake Basil, a Bogomil leader, with whom he had engaged in a theological dispute. In spite of the success of the crusade, Alexius also had to repel numerous attempts on his territory by the Seljuks in 1110–1117.
Alexius was for many years under the strong influence of an eminence grise, his mother Anna Dalassena, a wise and immensely able politician whom, in a uniquely irregular fashion, he had crowned as Augusta instead of the rightful claimant to the title, his wife Irene Ducaena. Dalassena was the effective administrator of the Empire during Alexius’ long absences in military campaigns: she was constantly at odds with her daughter-in-law and had assumed total responsibility for the upbringing and education of her granddaughter Anna Comnena.
Succession
Alexius’ last years were also troubled by anxieties over the succession. Although he had crowned his son John II Comnenus co-emperor at the age of five in 1092, John’s mother Irene Doukaina wished to alter the succession in favor of her daughter Anna and Anna’s husband, Nicephorus Bryennius. Bryennios had been made kaisar (Caesar) and received the newly-created title of panhypersebastos (“honoured above all”), and remained loyal to both Alexius and John. Nevertheless, the intrigues of Irene and Anna disturbed even Alexius’ dying hours.
Legacy
Alexius I had stabilized the Byzantine Empire and overcome a dangerous crisis, inaugurating a century of imperial prosperity and success. He had also profoundly altered the nature of the Byzantine government. By seeking close alliances with powerful noble families, Alexius put an end to the tradition of imperial exclusivity and coopted most of the nobility into his extended family and, through it, his government. This measure, which was intended to diminish opposition, was paralleled by the introduction of new courtly dignities, like that of panhypersebastos given to Nicephorus Bryennius, or that of sebastokrator given to the emperor’s brother Isaac Comnenus. Although this policy met with initial success, it gradually undermined the relative effectiveness of imperial bureaucracy by placing family connections over merit. Alexius’ policy of integration of the nobility bore the fruit of continuity: every Byzantine emperor who reigned after Alexius I Comnenus was related to him by either descent or marriage.
Family
By his marriage with Irene Ducaena, Alexius I had the following children:
Anna Komnene, who married the Caesar Nicephorus Bryennius.
Maria Komnene, who married (1) Gregory Gabras and (2) Nicephorus Euphorbenos Katakalon.
John II Komnenos, who succeeded as emperor.
Andronikos Comnenus, sebastokratōr.
Isaac Comnenus, sebastokratōr.
Eudocia Komnene, who married Michael Iasites.
Theodora Komnene, who married (1) Constantine Kourtikes and (2) Constantine Angelos. By him she was the grandmother of Emperors Isaac II Angelos and Alexios III Angelos.
Manuel Komnenos.
Zoe Komnene.

Alexios I Emperor of the Byzantine Empire Comnenus(1048 – 1118)
28th great-grandfather
Theodora Comnena (1096 – 1139)
daughter of Alexios I Emperor of the Byzantine Empire Comnenus
Andronikos Dukas Angelos (1122 – 1185)
son of Theodora Comnena
Alexios Emperor Byzantine Empire (1153 – 1204)
son of Andronikos Dukas Angelos
Empress Anna Komnene Angelina Nicaea (1176 – 1212)
daughter of Alexios Emperor Byzantine Empire
MARIA Laskarina (1206 – 1270)
daughter of Empress Anna Komnene Angelina Nicaea
King of Hungary Stephen V (1240 – 1277)
son of MARIA Laskarina
Marie DeHungary (1257 – 1323)
daughter of King of Hungary Stephen V
Marguerite Sicily Naples (1273 – 1299)
daughter of Marie DeHungary
Jeanne DeVALOIS (1294 – 1342)
daughter of Marguerite Sicily Naples
Philippa deHainault (1311 – 1369)
daughter of Jeanne DeVALOIS
John of Gaunt – Duke of Lancaster – Plantagenet (1340 – 1399)
son of Philippa deHainault
Elizabeth Plantagenet (1363 – 1425)
daughter of John of Gaunt – Duke of Lancaster – Plantagenet
John Holland (1395 – 1447)
son of Elizabeth Plantagenet
Henry Holland (1430 – 1475)
son of John Holland
Henry Holland (1485 – 1561)
son of Henry Holland
Henry Holland (1527 – 1561)
son of Henry Holland
John Holland (1556 – 1628)
son of Henry Holland
Gabriell Francis Holland (1596 – 1660)
son of John Holland
John Holland (1628 – 1710)
son of Gabriell Francis Holland
Mary Elizabeth Holland (1620 – 1681)
daughter of John Holland
Richard Dearden (1645 – 1747)
son of Mary Elizabeth Holland
George Dearden (1705 – 1749)
son of Richard Dearden
George Darden (1734 – 1807)
son of George Dearden
David Darden (1770 – 1820)
son of George Darden
Minerva Truly Darden (1806 – 1837)
daughter of David Darden
Sarah E Hughes (1829 – 1911)
daughter of Minerva Truly Darden
Lucinda Jane Armer (1847 – 1939)
daughter of Sarah E Hughes
George Harvey Taylor (1884 – 1941)
son of Lucinda Jane Armer
Ruby Lee Taylor (1922 – 2008)
daughter of George Harvey Taylor
Pamela Morse
I am the daughter of Ruby Lee Taylor
Council of the Crusaders

Council of the Crusaders

William Mead, Ninth Great-Grandfather

March 14, 2017 1 Comment

Entrance to Old Sound Cemetery, also known as the Tomac Burying Grounds

Entrance to Old Sound Cemetery, also known as the Tomac Burying Grounds

“William Mead, born in England, about 1600, probably sailed from Lydd, County Kent, England, in the ship, Elizabeth, Captain Stagg, April 1635, for the Massachusetts Bay Colony; first settled in Wethersfield, Connecticut; removed to Stamford, Connecticut, in 1641, where he died about 1663. His wife died at Stamford, Sept. 19, 1657. Their children were: Joseph, Martha, and John. Joseph and John settled in the town of Greenwich. See “History & Genealogy of the Mead Family”, Spencer Mead.”
THE MEAD FAMILY
The Mead Family of Greenwich, Fairfield Co., Conn. was originally from England, and came to this country shortly after the Mayflower had landed its load of Pilgrims on the shores of Massachusetts. It has generally been the tradition in the family that two brothers came over; that one stopped at the Eastward, while the other came to Horse-Neck. That two brothers or possibly three, came over is very probable, as it would not be natural for one to come alone, could he find a relative to join him in his adventures. In the “History of Lexington, Mass.” we find that Gabriel Mead was one of the earliest settlers of that place, as also David. The dates of their arrival, and of William of Horse-Neck (or rather Stamford) agree with one another, leading to the conclusion that all three were near relatives; furthermore the Coat-of -arms of both branches is identical, which is almost proof positive. It is not fully detemined from what part of England the Connecticut family came; but searches that have been made there seem to show a starting place somewhere near London, possibly Greenwich, Co. Kent.
The first record of any Mead in Fairfield Co. is the following in Stamford Town Records: “Dec. 7, 1641, William Mayd received from the town of Stamford, a homelot and 5 acres of land.” This William was undoubtedly the ancestor of the Fairfield Co. Meads. His wife died Sept. 19, 1657. We have record of three children. Joseph, born in 1630, the ancestor of the Ridgefield and North Fairfield Co. Meads; Martha, who married John Richardson, of Stamford, and John, the ancestor of the Horse-Neck Meads. The two sons, Joseph 2 and John 2, seem to have migrated (though if proved only a temporary sojourn) to Hempstead, L. I.
John 2 removed from Hempstead, L. I. to Greenwich (Horse-neck) in 1660. It was in this village that he purchased land; the date of the deed is Oct. 26, 1660, and is as follows, verbatim et literation.
These presents witnesseth an agreement made between Richard Crab of Grenwich, on ye one side & John Mead of Hemstead on Long Island on ye other side, viz: ye sd Richard Crab hath sould unto ye sd John Mead all his houses & Lands yt sd Richard Crab hath in Grenwich with all ye Apurtenances. Rights & Privileges & Conveniences yt doth belong unto ye sd houses & lands or shall here after belong unto them namely ye house yt Rechard Crab liveth in. Ye house yt Thomas Studwell liveth in with ye Barne yt is on ye other side of ye hyewaye; also ye home lott ye house stands on being bounded with a fence about them Lying on ye North west side against ye home lott also Eightene Acres of Land in Elizabeth neck more or less being bounded on ye sea on ye East ans south east and a fence on ye west norwest & ye north. Also ye Rig (ridge?) with five acres of Meadow Lying in it more or les. Ye rig being bounded by ye Sea on ye south east. Williamses Land on the east & a fence on ye northwest. Ye hye waye & hubert (Hubbard?) & angell Husted land on ye west; also three acres of meadow in ye Long meadow & one acre of Meadow by ferris bounded by Jeffere Ferris land on ye southwest and ye Cove on ye west and northwest: ye hyewaye on ye East & northeast & five acres of meadow in myanos neck. All these above spesiffied I do acknoledge to have sould unto ye above sd John Mead. His heaires & asignes fully & freely to be posses forever & for ye just & full performance hereof I have hereunto subscribed my hand Ann 1660 October 26 Daye.
Richerd Crabb

Tomac Burying Grounds

Tomac Burying Grounds

William Mead (1600 – 1659)
9th great-grandfather
John Mead (1634 – 1699)
son of William Mead
Benjamin Daniel Mead (1667 – 1746)
son of John Mead
Mary Mead (1724 – 1787)
daughter of Benjamin Daniel Mead
Abner Mead (1749 – 1810)
son of Mary Mead
Martha Mead (1784 – 1860)
daughter of Abner Mead
Abner Morse (1808 – 1838)
son of Martha Mead
Daniel Rowland Morse (1838 – 1910)
son of Abner Morse
Jason A Morse (1862 – 1932)
son of Daniel Rowland Morse
Ernest Abner Morse (1890 – 1965)
son of Jason A Morse
Richard Arden Morse (1920 – 2004)
son of Ernest Abner Morse
Pamela Morse
I am the daughter of Richard Arden Morse

#WritePhoto Enchanted Spring

March 2, 2017 10 Comments

enchanted spring

enchanted spring

Before we leave on the long pilgrimage to our forefathers’ homeland we gather vessels to fill with the water from the magical spring. Although it is heavy to carry on the slippery mountain trails we consider the water to be lucky. It is pure and clear, arising form deep within the earth, filtered through the sandy aquifer, arriving crystal clear and delicious. In the old days there was a superstition about drinking the water to be invited to return. When visitors arrived in the town that were undesirable to the townspeople they were all given beer to drink. The locals believed that once a person drank water from their enchanted spring, they would never leave. They had discovered this the hard way, and wanted to keep their precious resource to themselves.  They became isolationists just when the rest of the world was hooking up with transportation, commerce, trade, and immigration.  The elders wanted to maintain the purity of the water as well as the people’s thoughts.

These purity campaigns rarely result in a better environment.  Somehow the strict rules, the isolation and control of learning, social recreation, and dress customs, had the effect for freezing time.  The population survived, but only through sacrifice and very hard labor.  They freely allowed anyone to leave, but continued to tell strangers there was no water in town, only beer.  After a while the visitors stopped and the population dwindled.  The few old true believers still living in the area were now too feeble to climb up to fetch the water from the spring for themselves, and nobody was left to do it for them.  The enchantment was now completely wasted on them because it was just out of their reach.  It was still flowing copiously as it had done for centuries, but only a handful of people even knew where the spring was.

When the last surviving elder was on his last legs a young girl wandered into town and asked for a drink of water.  The old man broke down in tears while asking her who she was.  She replied that she was a descendent of someone who had lived in the village in the previous century.  She had heard stories about the miracle cures and the enchantment of the spring water that was legendary.  She came because she was curious.  She had fought through some dense forrest to arrive, traveling alone.  She carried with her a copper cup with some inscribed symbols and a name.  This cup had once belonged to her ancestor who left the village to live in the modern world.  Now her curiosity about the cup brought her to this undiscovered part of her inheritance.  The old man saw the cup hanging from her belt and asked to see it.  He recognized the clan symbols inscribed on the side, but when he drew the copper close to his eyes he was able to see the name.  He overflowed with emotion as he read the name of his own maternal great-grandmother on the cup. This was the last miracle the spring delivered to him.  He perished in tears of grief and relief after he showed this youthful distant relative how to find the trail to the spring. When she returned with her vessels full of water, his body had turned to a pile of colored dust. She realized he had been sustaining his own life with leftover magic from the time when he could still climb to the spring to wait for her arrival.  He had fulfilled his duty, and spent all of his extra lives. Now the responsibility was hers to share the enchantment of the spring.  Her hike back out of the forrest was somber indeed.

This short fiction is written based on the fabulous photo prompt from Sue Vincent.  Please join us to read, comment, or submit your own take on this picture.

#writephoto

#writephoto

Robert the Bruce, 21st Great-Grandfather

February 21, 2017 14 Comments

birthplace, Turnberry Castle

birthplace, Turnberry Castle

This is one of the ways I descend from the famous badass, Robert the Bruce:

Robert Bruce (1274 – 1329)
21st great-grandfather
Marjorie Bruce (1297 – 1316)
daughter of Robert Bruce
Robert II, King of Scotland, Stewart (1316 – 1390)
son of Marjorie Bruce
Robert Scotland Stewart (1337 – 1406)
son of Robert II, King of Scotland, Stewart
James I Scotland Stewart (1394 – 1434)
son of Robert Scotland Stewart
Joan Stewart (1428 – 1486)
daughter of James I Scotland Stewart
John Gordon (1450 – 1517)
son of Joan Stewart
Robert Lord Gordon (1475 – 1525)
son of John Gordon
Catherine Gordon (1497 – 1537)
daughter of Robert Lord Gordon
Lady Elizabeth Ashton (1524 – 1588)
daughter of Catherine Gordon
Capt Roger Dudley (1535 – 1585)
son of Lady Elizabeth Ashton
Gov Thomas Dudley (1576 – 1653)
son of Capt Roger Dudley
Anne Dudley (1612 – 1672)
daughter of Gov Thomas Dudley
John Bradstreet (1652 – 1718)
son of Anne Dudley
Mercy Bradstreet (1689 – 1725)
daughter of John Bradstreet
Caleb Hazen (1720 – 1777)
son of Mercy Bradstreet
Mercy Hazen (1747 – 1819)
daughter of Caleb Hazen
Martha Mead (1784 – 1860)
daughter of Mercy Hazen
Abner Morse (1808 – 1838)
son of Martha Mead
Daniel Rowland Morse (1838 – 1910)
son of Abner Morse
Jason A Morse (1862 – 1932)
son of Daniel Rowland Morse
Ernest Abner Morse (1890 – 1965)
son of Jason A Morse
Richard Arden Morse (1920 – 2004)
son of Ernest Abner Morse
Pamela Morse
I am the daughter of Richard Arden Morse

Robert The Bruce was born on 11 July 1274, probably in Turnberry Castle. He was descended from Scots, Gaelic and English nobility. His mother, Countess Marjorie of Carrick, was heir to a Gaelic earldom.

Robert’s grandfather, Robert Bruce ‘The Competitor’, was one of the claimants to the Scots throne. Bruce’s father, Robert de Brus of Annandale, fought in Wales for Edward I, was made governor of Carlisle Castle and fought on Edward’s side at the Battle of Dunbar in 1296. The Bruces refused to support John Balliol’s kingship and stayed close to Edward I. Balliol gave Bruce lands to the Comyns.

In 1298 Robert the Bruce became a guardian of Scotland alongside his great rival John ‘Red’ Comyn of Badenoch, and William Lamberton, Bishop of St Andrews. When Bruce and Comyn quarrelled Bruce resigned as guardian. In 1302 Bruce submitted to Edward I and returned ‘to the King’s peace’. Bruce married Elizabeth de Burgh.

Robert the Bruce’s father died in 1304. Bruce now had a viable claim to the throne. On 10 February 1306 Bruce met John Comyn of Badenoch at Greyfriars Kirk in Dumfries. A fight broke out, daggers were drawn and Bruce killed Red Comyn by the altar. The Pope excommunicated Bruce but Robert Wishart, Bishop of Glasgow, absolved him and made plans for Bruce to quickly take the throne. On 27 March 1306, Isobel of Fife, Countess of Buchan, crowned Bruce at Scone. His inauguration was small and hastily arranged but Robert Bruce was now King of Scots.

To Edward I the usurper King Robert was a rebel to be crushed. Edward’s reprisals were swift and brutal. Bruce was defeated at Methven. His wife, daughter and sisters were captured and imprisoned in England. Countess Isobel was locked in an iron cage at Berwick while Bruce’s brothers were hanged, drawn and beheaded. Bruce fled Edward’s wrath and spent a long winter hiding on the islands off the west coast and Ireland.

Bruce began a guerrilla war and struck at his enemies. His forces defeated Edward’s men at Glen Trool and Loudon Hill, then Edward I finally died in July 1307 – Bruce now faced Longshanks’ son, Edward II.

Bruce attacked his Scots enemies – destroying Comyn strongholds along the Great Glen and harrowing Buchan and the north east. His men cut a bloody swathe through Galloway and the south west.

One by one Scotland’s castles fell to Bruce and his supporters. Bruce had the castles ‘slighted’ – walls were torn down and defences were raised to the ground – the fortresses were made useless to an invading English army. As more castles fell more nobles pledged support to Bruce.

In 1314 Bruce watched Edward II’s army march toward Stirling Castle. Edward II had been given a year to relieve the besieged English force at Stirling or surrender the castle. Their forces met at the Battle of Bannockburn on 23 and 24 June 1314. Thousands died as the Scots defeated Edward’s army. The river was choked with the dead as Edward II fled the field and returned to England.

Bannockburn was not the end of Bruce’s struggle but it was a turning point. Captured English nobles were traded for his family and King Robert I gained international recognition. The Scots took the final English stronghold at Berwick in 1318 but Edward II still claimed overlordship of Scotland. Two years later the Scots sent a letter to the Pope – the Declaration of Arbroath – as part of an ongoing battle of words.

In 1327 Edward II was deposed by his Queen, Isabella. He was murdered in captivity. The English made peace with the Scots and renounced their claim of overlordship. The Black Rood, taken by Edward I, was returned to the Scots. It seemed that Bruce had finally won.

Robert the Bruce retired to Cardross near Dumbarton on the Firth of Clyde. He lived peacefully in a comfortable mansion house until his death on 7 June 1329. He asked that James Douglas take his heart on crusade. Bruce’s body was buried at Dunfermline Abbey, by his wife Elizabeth’s side, beneath an alabaster tomb. Bruce’s heart was finally buried at Melrose Abbey.

In the 1370s the Scots poet John Barbour wrote of Bruce, the hero-king, in ‘The Brus’.

Robert I, known as Robert the Bruce, was the king of the Scots who secured Scotland’s independence from England.

Here is another lineage:

Robert I “The Bruce” Bruce, King of Scotland (1274 – 1329)
21st great-grandfather
Margaret Bruce (1307 – 1346)
daughter of Robert I “The Bruce” Bruce, King of Scotland
John Glen (1349 – 1419)
son of Margaret Bruce
Isabel Glen (1380 – 1421)
daughter of John Glen
Isabel Ogilvie (1406 – 1484)
daughter of Isabel Glen
Elizabeth Kennedy (1434 – 1475)
daughter of Isabel Ogilvie
Isabella Vaus (1451 – 1510)
daughter of Elizabeth Kennedy
Marion Accarson (1478 – 1538)
daughter of Isabella Vaus
Catherine Gordon (1497 – 1537)
daughter of Marion Accarson
Lady Elizabeth Ashton (1524 – 1588)
daughter of Catherine Gordon
Capt Roger Dudley (1535 – 1585)
son of Lady Elizabeth Ashton
Gov Thomas Dudley (1576 – 1653)
son of Capt Roger Dudley
Anne Dudley (1612 – 1672)
daughter of Gov Thomas Dudley
John Bradstreet (1652 – 1718)
son of Anne Dudley
Mercy Bradstreet (1689 – 1725)
daughter of John Bradstreet
Caleb Hazen (1720 – 1777)
son of Mercy Bradstreet
Mercy Hazen (1747 – 1819)
daughter of Caleb Hazen
Martha Mead (1784 – 1860)
daughter of Mercy Hazen
Abner Morse (1808 – 1838)
son of Martha Mead
Daniel Rowland Morse (1838 – 1910)
son of Abner Morse
Jason A Morse (1862 – 1932)
son of Daniel Rowland Morse
Ernest Abner Morse (1890 – 1965)
son of Jason A Morse
Richard Arden Morse (1920 – 2004)
son of Ernest Abner Morse
Pamela Morse
I am the daughter of Richard Arden Morse

Both connect with Anne Dudley, my famous poet ancestor. One went through the Gordons for many generations, and the other went though the Kennedy family.

Robert's grave

Robert’s grave

Robert was born on 11 July 1274 into an aristocratic Scottish family. Through his father he was distantly related to the Scottish royal family. His mother had Gaelic antecedents. Bruce’s grandfather was one of the claimants to the Scottish throne during a succession dispute in 1290 – 1292. The English king, Edward I, was asked to arbitrate and chose John Balliol to be king. Both Bruce and his father refused to back Balliol and supported Edward I’s invasion of Scotland in 1296 to force Balliol to abdicate. Edward then ruled Scotland as a province of England.

Bruce then supported William Wallace’s uprising against the English. After Wallace was defeated, Bruce’s lands were not confiscated and in 1298, Bruce became a guardian of Scotland, with John Comyn, Balliol’s nephew and Bruce’s greatest rival for the Scottish throne In 1306, Bruce quarrelled with Comyn and stabbed him in a church in Dumfries. He was outlawed by Edward and excommunicated by the pope. Bruce now proclaimed his right to the throne and on 27 March was crowned king at Scone. The following year, Bruce was deposed by Edward’s army and forced to flee. His wife and daughters were imprisoned and three of his brothers executed. Robert spent the winter on the island off the coast of Antrim (Northern Ireland).

Returning to Scotland, Robert waged a highly successful guerrilla war against the English. At the Battle of Bannockburn in June 1314, he defeated a much larger English army under Edward II, confirming the re-establishment of an independent Scottish monarchy. Two years later, his brother Edward Bruce was inaugurated as high king of Ireland but was killed in battle in 1318. Even after Bannockburn and the Scottish capture of Berwick in 1318, Edward II refused to give up his claim to the overlordship of Scotland. In 1320, the Scottish earls, barons and the ‘community of the realm’ sent a letter to Pope John XXII declaring that Robert was their rightful monarch. This was the ‘Declaration of Arbroath’ and it asserted the antiquity of the Scottish people and their monarchy.

Four years later, Robert received papal recognition as king of an independent Scotland. The Franco-Scottish alliance was renewed in the Treaty of Corbeil, by which the Scots were obliged to make war on England should hostilities break out between England and France. In 1327, the English deposed Edward II in favour of his son and peace was made with Scotland. This included a total renunciation of all English claims to superiority over Scotland. Robert died on 7 June 1329. He was buried at Dunfermline. He requested that his heart be taken to the Holy Land, but it only got as far as Spain. It was returned to Scotland and buried in Melrose Abbey.

Elizabeth Washington, Seventh Great-Grandmother

January 16, 2017 1 Comment

Virginia Colony

Virginia Colony

My seventh great-grandmother’s grandfather was John Washington of Surry Co, VA. (See the Washington information from Louise Ingersoll’s book.) She inherited 200 acres of Surry Co. land from her father. That land was sold 2/19/1734. After Sampson died, she went into NC to live with her son James. On 22 Nov 1757 Edward Goodrich, Isaac Rowe Walton and John Maclin, gentlemen, laid off and assigned to Elizabeth Lanier, widow of Sampson Lanier, deceased her dower of said Sampson’s estate.

She remarried after Sampson died. Marriage bond, dated 23 July 1758 on file Brunswick Co, VA, shows Elizabeth Lanier,widow, marrying Cuthbert Smith, and an order dated
27 Feb 1759 appointed Cuthbert Smith guardian of Rebecca Lanier,orphan of Sampson Lanier, and an order dated 5 Sept 1759 appointing Lemuel Lanier as guardian for Burwell Lanier, Buckner Lanier, Winifred Lanier, Martha Lanier and Anne Lanier.
My seventh great-grandfather, Sampson Lanier, was born in 1681 and died in 1743.
Third son of John Lanier, Jr. born Charles City County 1681 (by deposition made in Surry Co. March 21, 1738), first appears in contemporary records as a “Tithable” in the upper end of Surry County above Stony Run in 1701. Richard Washington’s will leaves 200 acres of land to his daughter, Elizabeth, and leaves to his son-in-law, 200 acres lying in the Isle of Wight. Sampson Lanier sold this land which is now a part of Southhampton County; in February of 1734, Sampson
and Elizabeth Lanier sold the 200 acres of land given her by her father. They moved to Brunswick County before 1740. Sampson Lanier was a Justice, a Vestryman of St. Andrews, and, at one time, on the School Board. His will, dated 8 Jan. 1743, was proved on 5 May 1743. It lists their children as Thomas, Lemuel, Sampson, Richard, Elizabeth, and James. He married about 1706 in Surry, Elizabeth, daughter of Richard Washington (1660 Virginia – 1725 Virginia) & Elizabeth Jordan of Surry County, VA, and granddaughter of Major John Washington (born England 1632) of Surry County, VA. (See pp 40-41, Ingersoll.) She died in Pitt County, NC. Major John Washington was first cousin to Colonel John Washington of Westmoreland County, VA and was the Great Grandfather of George Washington, first President of the United States.

Elizabeth Washington (1689 – 1773)
7th great-grandmother
Elizabeth Lanier (1719 – 1795)
daughter of Elizabeth Washington
Martha Burch (1743 – 1803)
daughter of Elizabeth Lanier
David Darden (1770 – 1820)
son of Martha Burch
Minerva Truly Darden (1806 – 1837)
daughter of David Darden
Sarah E Hughes (1829 – 1911)
daughter of Minerva Truly Darden
Lucinda Jane Armer (1847 – 1939)
daughter of Sarah E Hughes
George Harvey Taylor (1884 – 1941)
son of Lucinda Jane Armer
Ruby Lee Taylor (1922 – 2008)
daughter of George Harvey Taylor
Pamela Morse
I am the daughter of Ruby Lee Taylor

Richard Washington’s will, dated November 9, 1724, leaves 200 acres of land to his daughter Elizabeth Lanier, “land where she now lives”; he leaves to his son-in-law, Sampson Lanier, 200 acres lying in the Isle of Wight. On March 23, 1732, Sampson Lanier sold the above 200 acres to the Vestry of Nottingham Parish, now Southampton County. On February 19, 1734, Sampson and Elizabeth Lanier sold the 200 acres of land given her by her father, and before 1740 they had moved to Brunswick County, Virginia. Sampson was a Justice, a Vestryman of St. Andrews, and at one time he was on the school board.
Sampson Lanier died about May 15, 1743 in Brunswick County, Virginia. Elizabeth died about 1773 in Pitt County, North Carolina.

Crab Grass

January 3, 2017 1 Comment

Ernie in Coffeeville

Ernie in Coffeeville

The perfectly manicured green grass shimmers in the bright morning sun as we take out the lawn bowling set that belonged to our great-grandfather. He was both a lawn perfectionist and a lawn bowler, a rare combination none of his children or grandchildren has encountered again in life.  He took great pains to keep the crabgrass out and the healthy green grass trimmed evenly. His yard was his pride and joy. His children were enslaved in landscaping work during the time they lived in their father’s home. Like Claude Monet it appeared that Jason cared more about his garden than he did about his children’s happiness.  Because of his particular love of lawn perfection and startling indifference to humans his children called him Crab Grass behind his back.

When my grandfather was young he left home with his brother because they were not fond of Crab Grass, and even less fond of his wife, their stepmother.  She claimed to be a witch , but she was known as a con artist.  She was a Cherokee woman who would arrive in a town saying she knew where Tecumseh had buried gold in the vicinity.  She would then scam the townspeople to bankroll an expedition to find the hidden treasure, then leave.  When she met our great-grandfather he was a snake oil salesman.  He peddled patent medicine and introduced his second wife to his family as a witch capable of harming them.  The boys’ birth mother had died young, leaving them with old Crab Grass and this con woman/witch,  living on the Cherokee Nation. Ernie and his brother Ralph ran away to become migrant workers, picking corn and doing other agricultural work all over the Midwest.  They worked in the season, then returned to their grandparents’ farm in Kansas during the winters.  They rarely visited their father, who lived in a nearby town in Oklahoma.

When great-grandfather Jason died his wife wanted to get rid of the lawn bowling set because she said it was haunted.  Nobody recalls which member of our family accepted the large burlap bag full of heavy balls that he had used almost every day of his life.  The family did not give it a second thought until the spooky feeling that accompanied the bag became obvious.  A family meeting had been called to decide what to do with this creepy inherited game set.  It was decided that the bag would travel from home to home, staying for a period of a year each time.  Since 1927 this lawn bowling set has brought tragedy, mystery, and wealth to our family.  It has acted as a Ouija board, seeming to be directed by spooks, to foretell the future. It seems to be inhabited by the spirit of our ancestor. His restless soul still wants to play his favorite game.  Since he is not longer incarnate we figure it can’t hurt to keep the game going for his amusement.  As we play on our own lawns now we wonder exactly what we inherited from all our relations.  It is far from clear.

 

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