mermaidcamp

mermaidcamp

Keeping current in wellness, in and out of the water

You can scroll the shelf using and keys

Henry Nichols, 8th Great-Grandfather

September 6, 2019

My eighth great-grandfather was born in Glamorganshire, Wales in 1678.  Rev. Henry Nicholls received a  B.A.in 1703 and an M.A. in 1705 from Jesus College, Oxford, Wales. He was sent to Pennsylvania, 1702-1708, during the reign of King James II. In 1707 he married my eighth great-grandmother, Elizabeth Gatchell of Chester, Pennsylvania.

Henry Nichols was the first residential missionary to Pennsylvannia for the “Society for Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts”, arriving in 1703. His churches were located in Chester, Concord, Radnor, and Montgomery. The Chester Church is described as of good brick fabric, one of the neatest on the continent, furnished with handsome furniture and rews. The members were regular and constant in divine worship, and they contributed 60 pounds a year toward their pastor’s support. The Radnor Church is still in excellent preservation, known as St. David’s Church and has been in use since 1708. Rev Nichols requested a transfer in 1708 and became rector at St. Michael’s Parish Church. Talbot Co., MD – a post he occupied until his death. For years, all records of his life were lost. The early church books had disappeared! Until June 1878 when workmen, employed to demolish the old church building, found his tomb under the Chancel in good preservation.

The following is a translation of the Latin inscription found on the slab over his tomb: “Here lies the remains of Henry Nicols, M. A., formerly a Fellow of Jesus College, Oxford, England, and a pastor of this church for 41 years – most unworthy. Born April 1st, 1678; died Feb. 12, 1748. Save his soul, O Christ for Thy own merits. Tread upon salt without savor.” (Henry has ordered these works to be inscribed before his death.) A number of his descendents still worship at St. Michael’s Church. They placed a tablet there to his memory where he ministered for so long. (From the Historical Magazine of the Protestant Episcopal Church, 1943, by Mary Clement, M. A., Principal of the Girls County School Board, Bridgend, Glamorganshire, Wales.)

 

Rev. Henry Nichols (1678 – 1748)
8th great-grandfather
William Nicholls (1704 – 1776)
Son of Rev. Henry Nichols
Amos Nicholls (1740 – )
Son of William Nicholls
Amos Nicholls (1780 – )
Son of Amos Nicholls
Amos Nicholls (1808 – 1868)
Son of Amos Nicholls
Emiline P Nicholls (1837 – )
Daughter of Amos Nicholls
Harriet Peterson (1856 – 1933)
Daughter of Emiline P Nicholls
Sarah Helena Byrne (1878 – 1962)
Daughter of Harriet Peterson
Olga Fern Scott (1897 – 1968)
Daughter of Sarah Helena Byrne
Richard Arden Morse (1920 – 2004)
Son of Olga Fern Scott
Pamela Morse
I am the daughter of Richard Arden Morse

 

Humphrey Stafford, Duke of Buckingham, Eighteenth Great-Grandfather

September 8, 2018 2 Comments

Humphrey married Margaret Beaufort, daughter of Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset and Eleanor Beauchamp. Her maternal grandparents were Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick and his first wife, Elizabeth Beauchamp, 4th Baroness Lisle. She was also a first cousin to Anne Neville, 16th Countess of Warwick and through her cousin-by-marriage to Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, the so-called “Kingmaker” during the Wars of the Roses. Humphrey and Margaret had a single son Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham (4 September 1455 – 2 November 1483).

Humphrey fought under his father-in-law in support of the House of Lancaster during the First Battle of St Albans. He appears to have been badly wounded at this battle but actually survived for a least another 2–3 years. This may account for his disappearance from the contemporary records of the time. In 1458 he died from the plague.

The First Battle of St Albans, fought on 22 May 1455 at St Albans, 22 miles (35 km) north of London, traditionally marks the beginning of the Wars of the Roses. Richard, Duke of York and his ally, Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, defeated the Lancastrians under Edmund, Duke of Somerset, who was killed. York also captured Henry VI, who appointed him Constable of England.

The Lancastrian army of 2,000 troops arrived at St Albans first, and proceeded to defend it by placing troops along the Tonman Ditch and at the bars in Sopwell Lane and Shropshire Lane. The 3,000-strong Yorkist army arrived and camped in Keyfield to the east. Lengthy negotiations ensued with heralds moving back and forth between the rival commanders. After several hours, Richard, despairing of a peaceful solution, decided to attack. The bulk of Henry’s forces were surprised by the speed of Richard’s attack; most of the army was expecting a peaceful resolution similar to the one at Blackheath in 1452. However, two frontal assaults down the narrow streets against the barricades made no headway and resulted in heavy casualties for the Yorkists.
Warwick took his reserve troops through an unguarded part of the town’s defences, through back lanes and gardens. Suddenly the Earl appeared in the Market Square where the main body of Henry’s troops were talking and resting. There is evidence they were not yet expecting to be involved in the fighting, as many were not even wearing their helmets. Warwick charged instantly with his force, routing the Lancastrians and killing the Duke of Somerset.
On the Earl’s orders, his archers then shot at the men around the King, killing several and injuring the King and the Duke of Buckingham. The Lancastrians manning the barricades realised the Yorkists had ouflanked them, and fearing an attack from behind abandoned their positions and fled the town.
The First Battle of St Albans was relatively minor in military terms, but politically was a complete victory for York and Warwick: York had captured the King and restored himself to complete power, while his rival Somerset and Warwick’s arch-enemies Henry Percy, 2nd Earl of Northumberland, and Lord de Clifford both fell during the rout.

 Humphrey actually died of the plague, not of wounds after The Battle of St. Albans. He was apprently badly wounded there, but survived.


Humphrey actually died of the plague, not of wounds after The Battle of St. Albans. He was apprently badly wounded there, but survived.

.
His maternal grandparents were Ralph de Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland and Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland.  His maternal uncles included (among others) Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury (father ofWarwick, the Kingmaker), Robert Neville who was first Bishop of Salisbury and then Bishop of Durham, William Neville, 1st Earl of Kent and Edward Nevill, 3rd Baron Bergavenny. His most prominent maternal aunt was Cecily Neville, wife of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York and mother to among others Edward IV of England, Edmund, Earl of Rutland, George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence and Richard III of England.

Lord Stafford fought under his father-in-law in support of the House of Lancaster during the First Battle of St Albans. He appears to have been badly wounded at this battle, but either eventually died of his wounds or from the plague, predeceasing his own father in 1458.

Stafford married Lady Margaret Beaufort, daughter of Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset and Lady Eleanor Beauchamp. Her maternal grandparents were Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick and his first wife Elizabeth Berkeley. By her father, she was a niece of Joan Beaufort, Queen of Scots and a cousin to Lady Margaret Beaufort (mother of King Henry VII). By her mother, Lady Margaret was a niece of Anne de Beauchamp, 16th Countess of Warwick and as such, a cousin to Isabel, Duchess of Clarence and queen consort Anne Neville.

Lord and Lady Stafford had a single son, Henry (4 September 1455 – 2 November 1483). Henry was styled Earl of Stafford on his father’s death, and succeeded his paternal grandfather as Duke of Buckingham in June 1473, following the latter’s death at the Battle of Northampton on 10 July 1460.

Jacquetta de Luxembourg Seventeenth Great-Grandmother

August 21, 2018 2 Comments

Jacquetta de Luxembourg

Jacquetta de Luxembourg

Jacquetta of Luxembourg was born in 1415 in St Pol, Artois, France. Jacquetta Woodville was the daughter of Pierre of Luxembourg, Count of St. Pol (d. 1433), and Marguerite de Baux of Andria. Her uncle, Louis de Luxembourg, was bishop of Thérouanne and chancellor of France during the time that John, Duke of Bedford, was serving as Regent of France for the government of the youthful Henry VI. Another uncle, Jean de Luxembourg, is known for having held Joan of Arc in captivity before she was handed over to the English.

On 22 April 1433 at age 17, Jacquetta married John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford at Therouenne. The Duke was the third son of King Henry IV of England and Mary de Bohun, and thus the grandson of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, himself the third son of Edward III.

Jacquetta was a fourth cousin, twice removed of Sigismund of Luxembourg, the reigning Holy Roman Emperor, and King of Bohemia and Hungary.

The marriage was childless and the Duke died on 15 September 1435 at Rouen. In Philippa Gregory’s novel The White Queen Jacquetta is referred to as ‘Jaquetta Rivers’ but in fact and as was customary at the time, after her second marriage Jacquetta retained the title of her first husband and was always known as the Duchess of Bedford, this being a higher title to that of countess.

Sir Richard Woodville, son of Sir Richard Wydevill who had served as the late Duke’s chamberlain, was commissioned by Henry VI of England to bring the young widow to England. During the journey, the couple fell in love and married in secret (before 23 March 1437), without seeking the king’s permission. The marriage was long and very fruitful: Jacquetta and Richard had fourteen children, including the future Queen Consort Elizabeth Woodville. She lost her first-born son Lewis to a fever when he was 12 years old.

Sir Richard and Jacquetta Woodville were the parents of the following known children: Elizabeth Woodville, Queen of England, Lewis Woodville, Anne Woodville, Viscountess Bourchier, Anthony Woodville, 2nd Earl Rivers, Mary Woodville, Countess of Pembroke, Jacquetta Woodville, Lady Strange, Sir John Woodville, Richard Woodville, 3rd Earl Rivers, Martha Woodville, Lady Bromley, Eleanor Woodville, Lady Grey, Lionel Woodville, Bishop of Salisbury, Margaret Woodville, Countess of Arundel, Sir Edward Woodville and Catherine Woodville, Duchess of Buckingham and Bedford.

Through her daughter, Queen Elizabeth, Jacquetta was the maternal grandmother of Elizabeth of York, Queen and wife of Henry VII. As such, she is an ancestress of all subsequent English and British monarchs, including Elizabeth II, and seven other present-day European monarchs.

Jacquetta died on 30 May 1472 in Grafton, Northamptonshire, England. She was 57 years old.

Jacquette deLuxembourg (1416 – 1472)
17th great-grandmother
Margaret Woodville (1455 – 1491)
Daughter of Jacquette deLuxembourg
Thomas Audley (1503 – 1544)
Son of Margaret Woodville
Margaret Audley (1545 – 1564)
Daughter of Thomas Audley
Margaret Howard (1561 – 1591)
Daughter of Margaret Audley
Lady Ann Dorset (1552 – 1680)
Daughter of Margaret Howard
Robert Lewis (1574 – 1656)
Son of Lady Ann Dorset
Robert Lewis (1607 – 1644)
Son of Robert Lewis
Ann Lewis (1631 – 1686)
Daughter of Robert Lewis
Joshua Morse (1669 – 1753)
Son of Ann Lewis
Joseph Morse (1692 – 1756)
Son of Joshua Morse
Joseph Morse (1721 – 1776)
Son of Joseph Morse
Joseph Morse III (1756 – 1835)
Son of Joseph Morse
John Henry Morse (1775 – 1864)
Son of Joseph Morse III
Abner Morse (1808 – 1838)
Son of John Henry Morse
Daniel Rowland Morse (1838 – 1910)
Son of Abner Morse
Jason A Morse (1862 – 1932)
Son of Daniel Rowland Morse
Ernest Abner Morse (1890 – 1965)
Son of Jason A Morse
Richard Arden Morse (1920 – 2004)
Son of Ernest Abner Morse
Pamela Morse
I am the daughter of Richard Arden Morse

The Duke of Bedford, a younger brother of Henry V, was widowed from Anne of Burgundy in 1432. At Thérouanne on April 20, 1433, just five months after the death of his first wife, the forty-three-year-old John married the seventeen-year-old Jacquetta of Luxembourg. In honor of the occasion, Bedford presented the Church of Notre Dame in Thérouanne with a peal of bells. Not for the last time when Jacquetta was concerned, the match was a controversial one, the offended party being Philip, Duke of Burgundy, Bedford’s former brother-in-law. Not only had the Duke of Bedford (whose first marriage was childless) remarried in unseemly haste, he had married Jacquetta, one of his vassals, without Burgundy’s permission. Bedford was to remain estranged from Burgundy for the rest of Bedford’s short life.

Jacquetta first came to England in June 1433 in the company of her husband. George Smith notes that the citizens of Coventry presented her with fifty marks and a cup of silver and over-gilt. The Duke and Duchess of Bedford made a grand entry into London, a city where Jacquetta was to find favor in later life.

Bedford and Jacquetta returned to France in July 1434. Though Bedford was only in his forties, his health was failing, possibly from the stress of dealing with difficulties in both England and France. He died on September 14, 1435 at Rouen Castle. His marriage to young Jacquetta had been childless, though Bedford had sired two out-of-wedlock children earlier in life and Jacquetta’s second marriage would produce a dozen children who lived to adulthood.

By all accounts, Bedford had had great affection for his first wife, Anne of Burgundy. What he and the much younger Jacquetta felt about each other is unknown, but Bedford certainly tried to take good care of his young bride upon his death. He left Jacquetta a life interest in all of his lands in England, France, and Normandy, except for one estate that went to his bastard son, Richard. (Henry VI held the remainder interest.) Partly because of the requirements of English inheritance law, partly because of the claims of Bedford’s brother Humphrey, partly because of English losses in France and Normandy, Jacquetta received only some of what her husband had left to her.

On February 6, 1436, Jacquetta was granted dower in England, Jersey, Guernsey, and Calais. The grant was conditioned on Jacquetta’s not marrying without royal license—a condition that Jacquetta soon broke, and spectacularly so. She married one Richard Woodville, the son of her husband’s chamberlain. Richard had been knighted by Henry VI ten years earlier, having been in royal service in France since 1433. From Northampshire gentry, he was hardly Jacquetta’s social equal. The unsanctioned match infuriated Jacquetta’s Luxembourg relations, and Henry VI fined her 1,000 pounds. The couple paid the fine before March 23, 1437, apparently with funds gained from the grant of certain lands to Cardinal Beaufort.

Despite their controversial marriage, Jacquetta and her husband found favor in the court of Henry VI. When the king married Margaret of Anjou, Jacquetta and Richard Woodville were among those who escorted her to England. Jacquetta often received New Year’s presents from the queen, and in 1457 she and Woodville are named as being present with the queen at a Corpus Christi pageant. Jacquetta’s chief occupation during this time, however, was bearing children: twelve survived to adulthood, with Elizabeth, probably the eldest, being born around 1437 and Katherine, probably the youngest, being born around 1458.

In 1459, Richard Woodville, who had taken the side of Lancaster against the Duke of York, was captured at Sandwich and taken to Calais, where according to William Paston he was “rated” by the Earls of Salisbury, Warwick, and March for his low birth. According to Gregory’s Chronicle, Jacquetta was captured along with her husband; thus, she may have been a witness to this humiliating scene. If she was, she must have enjoyed the irony five years later when the Earl of March, who had become King Edward IV, made her and her low-born husband’s daughter Elizabeth his queen.

Jacquetta performed a service for the city of London in February 1461 when its aldermen, fearing devastation at the hands of Margaret of Anjou’s forces, sent a delegation to the queen, in the words of the Great Chronicle, to “entreat for grace for the City.” The delegation included “divers Clerks and Curates” and three women: the widowed Duchess of Buckingham, whose grandson would marry Jacquetta’s youngest daughter; Lady Scales, whose son-in-law was Jacquetta’s son Anthony; and Jacquetta herself. All had ties with Margaret of Anjou. The delegation returned with the news that no pillaging would take place but that the king and queen would punish evildoers, after which a second delegation, again including the three ladies, was sent to Barnet. Ultimately, it was Yorkist troops who entered the city, while Margaret withdrew to the north.

Edward IV became king soon after these events, on March 4, 1461. Jacquetta and her family, who had been supporters of the House of Lancaster, soon made their peace with the new reign. Jacquetta’s husband Richard Woodville eventually became one of the young king’s councilors. Sometime in 1464, however, a much stronger tie was forged: Jacquetta and Richard’s daughter Elizabeth married Edward IV.

The royal marriage is usually supposed to have taken place at Grafton on May 4, 1464, although there is some evidence that it could have taken place as late as September 1464, shortly before Edward IV announced it to his councilors. Whatever the date of the ceremony, Jacquetta is described by the chronicler Fabian in 1516 as having had a prominent role in the secret marriage. She is said to have been one of the witnesses to the marriage, after which Elizabeth over a four-day period “nightly to [Edward’s] bed was brought in so secret manner that almost none but her mother was of counsel.”

Following Edward IV’s announcement of his marriage, he arranged for a grand coronation for his bride, which took place on May 26, 1465. Jacquetta was prominent among the ladies who followed Elizabeth in the procession. At the banquet following the ceremony, she sat at the middle table on the left hand of the queen.

Also present for the festivities was Jacquetta’s youngest brother, Jacques de Luxembourg, representing Philip, Duke of Burgundy. The current Wikipedia entry on Elizabeth Woodville claims, without giving a source, that Jacquetta’s relations appeared for the coronation “carrying shields painted with the figure of Melusine, a ‘water-witch’ (actually a medieval version of the old pagan goddess) described variously as a mermaid or possibly as a female figure depicted as a snake from the waist down, but with the face clearly that of the young Queen. This immediately caused whispers of witchcraft to circulate throughout the Abbey, as it was indeed the intention of the Luxembourgers to suggest an accusation of witchcraft thereby.” This story probably comes from historical fiction, not history. Such an incident is not mentioned in any contemporary source that I have seen, nor is it discussed by Elizabeth Woodville’s modern biographers or by historians hostile to the Woodvilles like Paul Murray Kendall, who could certainly be counted upon to make the most of such an episode. Jacquetta’s relations would hardly gain from implying that either Jacquetta or Elizabeth was involved with witchcraft, especially as her older relations had seen the consequences of such allegations firsthand when Joan of Arc was burned at the stake.

Elizabeth Woodville gave birth to her first royal child, Elizabeth, on February 11, 1466. Jacquetta was one of the baby’s godmothers, the other being the king’s mother, Cecily of York. Cecily had been none too happy about her son’s marriage; how the two new grandmothers got along on this occasion is sadly not recorded.

Following childbirth, it was customary for a medieval woman to seclude herself for a period, after which she would attend church for a ceremony of purification. A celebration often followed. At the banquet following Elizabeth Woodville’s “churching,” a Bohemian observer noted that Jacquetta knelt before her daughter, being bidden at times to rise. This has been taken as proof of Elizabeth Woodville’s insufferable haughtiness—even her own mother had to kneel before her!—but there is no indication that Jacquetta found this demeaning or that this highly formal occasion was typical of the daily interaction between mother and daughter. For all we know—and we don’t—Jacquetta might have insisted that her daughter observe all the formalities of what was her first churching as queen.

Perhaps the most damaging incident associated with Jacquetta is one which occurred in 1468: the arrest of Thomas Cook for treason. The original story has been distorted to suggest that the treason charges against Cook were concocted to allow Jacquetta to lay her hands on an expensive tapestry that Cook had refused to sell her, but reality, as usual, is more complicated. According to the Great Chronicle, Jacquetta did indeed dislike Cook for his refusal to sell her the arras, but Cook’s arrest was only one of many in a time when Edward IV genuinely feared that Lancastrian plots were afoot, and he was implicated by one John Hawkins, a Lancastrian agent. Cook’s house was searched and agents of Jacquetta’s husband Richard Woodville (who had been created Earl Rivers and made the treasurer of England) seized Cook’s goods, including the infamous tapestry. Ultimately, Cook was convicted by a jury of misprision. As Anne F. Sutton and Livia Visser-Fuchs note, Fabian never says in the Great Chronicle that Jacquetta actually acquired the coveted arras; rather, he implies that it was used to set off Cook’s fine for misprision. Fabian also does not state that Cook was innocent of the charges on which he was convicted, only that Jacquetta and her husband (and the king) were displeased by the verdict. Whatever the fate of the arras, Cook was not ruined by the episode, but was still a wealthy man when he died ten years later. He was back in Edward IV’s good graces at the time, having been pardoned for his Lancastrian activities in 1472 and appointed to a royal commission in 1475.

The year after the Cook incident, 1469, was without doubt the worst in Jacquetta’s life. Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, known as the “Kingmaker” for his role in helping Edward IV to the throne, had become disaffected from the crown for a number of reasons, including the rise of the Woodvilles, Edward IV’s growing independence from him, and differences over foreign policy. Meanwhile, the honeymoon Edward IV had enjoyed with his subjects was ending, thanks to taxation, growing lawlessness, and the diehard Lancastrians still within and without England. Warwick joined forces with Edward IV’s younger brother George, Duke of Clarence, and the two men issued a manifesto blaming the Woodvilles and other royal favorites for the country’s ills. Jacquetta, her husband, and her sons Anthony and John were among those accused of “deceitful, covetous rule.” In the upheaval that followed, Edward IV was briefly taken prisoner by Warwick. Jacquetta’s husband, Earl Rivers, and one of her sons, John, were seized by Warwick’s troops and murdered. (According to Michael Hicks, who cites a King’s Bench record, Jacquetta later brought proceedings against 34 men in connection with her husband’s murder, but he does not report the outcome.)

Jacquetta had risked her reputation and her livelihood to marry Richard Woodville over thirty years before. Her agony at his violent death, coupled with that of one of her sons, can only be imagined. Her son Anthony’s life was in danger as well. It was then that Thomas Wake, a follower of Warwick’s, accused her of witchcraft.

Wake brought to Warwick Castle a lead image “made like a man of arms . . . broken in the middle and made fast with a wire,“ and alleged that Jacquetta had fashioned it to use for witchcraft and sorcery. He claimed that John Daunger, a parish clerk in Northampton, could attest that Jacquetta had made two other images, one for the king and one for the queen.

As an accused witch, Jacquetta faced imprisonment at best, burning at the stake at worst. With this accusation coming on top of the deaths of her husband and son, she must have been devastated, but Jacquetta was not a woman who was easily cowed. According to Cora Scofield, who cites the London Journal, the Duchess of Bedford appealed to the mayor and aldermen of London, who remembered the service Jacquetta had done for the city by interceding with Margaret of Anjou in 1461. They agreed to intercede on Jacquetta’s behalf with the king’s council, which at the time was essentially Warwick’s council, as Edward IV was still a prisoner in the North.

By October 1469, Edward IV was once again at liberty, Warwick having found that his own popularity was not so great as to allow him to govern through an imprisoned king. As a result, the witchcraft charges against Jacquetta fell apart. Neither Thomas Wake nor John Daunger, summoned before men appointed by Edward IV who could be counted upon to be friendly toward the king’s mother-in-law, produced any images, and Daunger, who stated that “he heard no witchcraft of the lady of Bedford,” refused to say that there were any images of the king and queen. As a result, Jacquetta was cleared by the king’s great council of the charges on January 19, 1470. For good measure, she obtained letters of exemplification from the king in February 1470, taking the opportunity to have it recorded as well that she was a believer “on God according to the truth of Holy Church.” (See the link below for the text of the document exonerating Jacquetta.)

Other than the accusations of her enemies, there is no reason to disbelieve Jacquetta. It should be noted that Jacquetta did own a copy of an “ancestral romance” entitled Mélusine, featuring a legendary figure who was associated both with the houses of Luxembourg and Lusignan, but as noted by Anne Sutton and Livia Visser-Fuchs, the romance was a popular one at the time, and copies were found among the inventories of other high-born ladies.

Edward IV’s recovery of his throne was brief, and when he was forced to flee England in late September 1470 to avoid capture by Warwick, a heavily pregnant Elizabeth Woodville went into sanctuary, accompanied by her daughters and Jacquetta. With Henry VI restored to the throne, neither Warwick nor his followers attempted to revive the allegations of witchcraft against Jacquetta, although the government admittedly had more pressing concerns. Indeed, Warwick had been a member of the great council that recommended that letters of exemplification be made to Jacquetta.

His enemies vanquished at Barnet and Tewkesbury, Edward IV regained his throne in May 1471. With Warwick killed at Barnet, the king the proud father of a son born to his queen while in sanctuary, and Jacquetta’s son Anthony carrying on his father’s title, Jacquetta must have felt at peace, but she did not have long to enjoy it. She died on May 30, 1472. I have not found any mention of her will or her funeral, though the latter must surely have been conducted with all due ceremony.

In 1484, Richard III in Titulus Regius, the document spelling out to Parliament his claim to the throne, revived the old accusations of witchcraft against Jacquetta. He—or, more accurately, those presenting the petition, which certainly had to have had his wholehearted approval—stated that the marriage between Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville was invalid because, among other reasons, it was made “by sorcerie and wichecrafte, committed by the said Elizabeth and her moder, Jaquett Duchess of Bedford, as the common opinion of the people and the publique voice and fame is through all this land.” The drafters of the petition added that if the case required it, the allegations of witchcraft would be proved sufficiently “in tyme and place convenient.” No such proof was ever offered by Richard III or his government, and Elizabeth was hardly in a position to defy the king and attempt to clear her and her deceased mother’s names. Sadly, the unproven charges, elaborated upon in lurid detail by historical fiction writers and even by some nonfiction writers, continue to blacken both women’s reputations today.

Sir Richard Woodville, son of Sir Richard Wydevill who had served as the late Duke’s chamberlain, was commissioned by Henry VI of England to bring the
young widow to England. During the rough journey, the couple fell in love and married in secret (before March 23, 1436/1437), without seeking the king’s
permission. Enraged, Henry VI refused to see them but was mollified by the payment of a fine.
By the mid-1440s, the Woodvilles were in ascendancy. Queen Consort Margaret of Anjou influenced her husband Henry VI to create Richard Woodville 1st
Earl Rivers in 1448. Jacquetta was related to both the Queen and the King. Her sister, Isabelle de Saint Pol, married the brother of Queen Margaret, while
Jacquetta was herself the erstwhile widow of the uncle of Henry VI.
As royalty, she outranked all ladies at Court with the exception of the Queen herself. As a personal favourite and close relative of the Queen, she also enjoyed
special privileges and influence at court. Happily married to the love of her life, Jacquetta bore Richard sixteen children, among them Elizabeth Woodville who
was to become the wife of King Edward IV of England, and mother of Elizabeth of York (in her turn mother of King Henry VIII, thus making Jacquetta his
great-grandmother).

Jacquetta weathered two accusations of witchcraft during her second marriage, once by the mob that illegally beheaded her second husband and once when a little leaden figure of a man of arms “about the size of a thumb” bound up in wire was discovered among her personal effects. She was cleared of slanderous charges of witchcraft brought against her by Thomas Wake. Evidence consisted of a figure of knight made of leaden, broken on the middle and bound with wire, which he asserted she had fashioned. Brought forth John Daunger, parish clerk of Northhamptonshire to testify she had made 2 other such figures, one of King Ed IV and one of Elizabeth Woodville his queen. Clerk refused to testify any such thing and charges dismissed. Scandal was revived in 1483 when Richard III tried to show there had never been any valid marriage between Edward and Elizabeth, that it was result of love magic perpetrated Elizabeth and her mother. Her husband, Richard Wyddeville (Woodville) was excuted by beheading in 1469 for treason.

She was acquitted by her son-in-law, King Edward IV. However, these instances were recalled and cited after her death when Richard III ordered Parliament in 1483 to attaint her daughter, the widowed Queen Elizabeth Woodville, for witchcraft.

Wars of the Roses
The death of her son-in-law Sir John Grey (Elizabeth’s husband) in the Second Battle of St Albans (February 22, 1461) against King Edward IV brought out the
strong calculating and manipulative mind in Jacquetta. Following her mother’s directives, in 1464, Elizabeth (with her two minor sons) accosted Edward (out
on a hunt) at Whittlebury Forest near the family home and pleaded with the King to return the confiscated estates of her husband to her sons. Thoroughly
bewitched by her beauty, Edward offered to make her his mistress, but she held out for marriage. A desperate Edward married Elizabeth in secret, but the
marriage was not disclosed as it would mean difficulty for the House of York. Once it became common knowledge, however, the alliance displeased Richard
Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, the King’s most trusted ally, and his friends.
With Elizabeth as Queen of England, Jacquetta managed to find rich and influential spouses for all her children and helped her grandchildren achieve high
posts. She arranged for her 20-year-old son, John Woodville, to marry the widowed and very rich dowager Duchess of Norfolk, Catherine Neville. The bride
was at least forty years older than the groom at the time of the wedding. The marriage caused a furore and earned the Woodvilles considerable unpopularity.
Catherine Neville’s son, John de Mowbray, 3rd Duke of Norfolk, especially, turned against the Queen and her family and vowed vengeance against the Yorkist
allies for the slur on his family honour.
Sadly, the Woodvilles’ luck soon ran out. The Lancastrian side (on which the Woodvilles found themselves) was the losing side in the War of the Roses. In
1466, Richard Woodville was captured by Warwick and executed subsequently in 1469. A broken hearted Jacquetta survived her beloved husband by six years
and died in 1472, at about 56 years of age.
Jacquetta was as influential in death as she was in life. She is credited with being the ancestress of most present day European monarchs.

Frances Peabody, Tenth Great-Grandfather

July 18, 2018

Myles Standish Burying Ground,Duxbury,MA

Myles Standish Burying Ground,Duxbury,MA

The ship Planter, under Master Nicholas Trerice/Travice, sailed from London April 2 or 11, 1635, arriving at Boston June 7, 1635. My tenth great-grandfather was 21 years old when he sailed to America on that ship.

Lt. Francis Peabody, the ancestor of the American Peabodys, was born at St. Albans, Hertfordshire, England, in 1614. He came to America in 1635 ; lived first in Lynn, and then in Ipswich, in then Massachusetts Bay colony. In 1639, he removed to Hampton, N.H., where he lived until 1657, when he came to Topsfield, Mass. He was useful in the new place, and was chosen to the office of selectman, as well as town clerk, both of which offices he held many years.

March 4, 1664, the town voted that Lt. Peabody have liberty ” to set up a grist mill and to flow so much of the town’s common as is needful for a mill so long as the mill does stand and grind for the town.”

The next year (1665), Mr. Peabody established the mill on Pyebrook. Who can estimate the joy of the inhabitants at that early period of having a grist mill to accommodate them in the grinding of their rye and corn! It marked a new era in the history of the Topsfield commoners.

March 7, 1671, the town voted that it was “willing that Lieut. Peabody shall set up a saw mill provided it does not do damage to any of the townsmen in their meadows.” The saw mill was built in 1672.

So far as the writer is able to learn, everything pertaining to these mills went along smoothly until 1691, when, the business having increased on account of the growth of the surrounding district, there was not a sufficient head of water during a part of the year to run the mills. Hewlett’s brook, a branch of Pye brook, left the latter stream and ran off to the northeastward, a short distance above the Peabody mills. As, at that time, there was no mill on Hewlett’s brook, Mr. Peabody was granted by the town the privilege of building a dam across this branch a few rods below its parting from the main stream, providing he pay satisfactory damages to the adjoining owners by reason of his flowing their meadows. The records speak of damages being received the following year by Thomas Dorman and sons, who had in 1690 erected a house within a few rods of the parting of the brook.* There was probably water power enough at the mills after the building of the dam as there are no papers showjng the want of it for more than fifty years afterwards.

During the year 1698 (?), after faithfully serving his day and generation, Lt. Francis Peabody passed away full of years and honors. By his will, dated Jan. 20, 1695, he gives his son Isaac Peabody the mills and mill-yard, the dwellinghouse by the mill, and other property.

Lieut Francis Peabody (1614 – 1697)
10th great-grandfather
Lydia Peabody (1640 – 1715)
daughter of Lieut Francis Peabody
Mary Howlett (1664 – 1727)
daughter of Lydia Peabody
John Hazen (1687 – 1772)
son of Mary Howlett
Caleb Hazen (1720 – 1777)
son of John Hazen
Mercy Hazen (1747 – 1819)
daughter of Caleb Hazen
Martha Mead (1784 – 1860)
daughter of Mercy Hazen
Abner Morse (1808 – 1838)
son of Martha Mead
Daniel Rowland Morse (1838 – 1910)
son of Abner Morse
Jason A Morse (1862 – 1932)
son of Daniel Rowland Morse
Ernest Abner Morse (1890 – 1965)
son of Jason A Morse
Richard Arden Morse (1920 – 2004)
son of Ernest Abner Morse
Pamela Morse
I am the daughter of Richard Arden Morse

Frances Peabody's signature

Frances Peabody’s signature

Augustine Steward, 11th Great-Grandfather

July 15, 2018 13 Comments

Augustine Steward

Augustine Steward

It is possible today to visit the home of my 11th great-grandfather, Augustine Steward.  He was a successful mercer and mayor or Norwich.

 

Augustine Steward (1491 – 1571)
11th great-grandfather
Elizabeth Steward (1528 – 1575)
daughter of Augustine Steward
Augustine Jarnigo Sotherton (1553 – 1585)
son of Elizabeth Steward
Elizabeth Southerton (1582 – 1628)
daughter of Augustine Jarnigo Sotherton
Margaret Warner (1615 – 1649)
daughter of Elizabeth Southerton
Captain William GARTON (1635 – 1709)
son of Margaret Warner
Margaret Garton (1678 – 1773)
daughter of Captain William GARTON
Thomas Morris (1730 – 1791)
son of Margaret Garton
Joanna Morris (1762 – 1839)
daughter of Thomas Morris
John Samuel Taylor (1798 – 1873)
son of Joanna Morris
William Ellison Taylor (1839 – 1918)
son of John Samuel Taylor
George Harvey Taylor (1884 – 1941)
son of William Ellison Taylor
Ruby Lee Taylor (1922 – 2008)
daughter of George Harvey Taylor
Pamela Morse
I am the daughter of Ruby Lee Taylor

Augustine Steward was born in 1491 in the Tombland house opposite the Erpingham Gate of Norwich Cathedral. His father, Geoffrey, was a Norwich mercer and alderman. Shortly after Augustine’s birth the family moved from Tombland to a prestigious, stone-built house (Suckling House) in St. Andrews. Augustine was apprenticed to his father, who died in 1504. Augustine’s mother then married John Clerk, a rich merchant and grocer. John was mayor of Norwich in 1505 and in 1510. Augustine’s mother traded as Cecily Clerk with her own registered merchant’s mark.

A successful mercer

Augustine, known as Austen, became a highly successful Norwich mercer, who signed himself Awstyne Styward. He married twice and lived in the Tombland house where he was born. His first wife was Elizabeth Read of Beccles with whom he had a family of two sons and six daughters. His second wife, Alice Repps, from West Walton gave him a son and two daughters. Augustine was a Norwich councillor from 1522 to 1525, an alderman from 1526 to 1570 and Sheriff in 1526, He was Mayor in 1534, 1546 and 1556, a record that was only equalled by two other men within the sixteenth century. Augustine was also M.P for Norwich in 1542 and a Burgess in Parliament in 1547. During the sixteenth century, the office of mayor meant undertaking a demanding, full-time task for a year. A mayor’s own business had to be successful and so arranged that it could run without him. The mayor was expected to use his personal funds for some civic hospitality. However, the Corporation did stage a three-part show to mark Steward’s third term in office. It was recognised that Augustine had ‘allwayes ben a good and modest man, hee was beloved of poore and rich’.
Rebuilding the Guildhall

Steward’s influence was prominent in the 1534 rebuilding of the Council Chamber of Norwich Guildhall. He was involved with purchasing Black Friars Church, (St. Andrew’s Hall), from the Crown, for Norwich. A 1540 charter conveyed the Black Friar’s Monastery to the city for £81, paid by ‘our beloved Augustine Steward, of our city of Norwich, merchant.’ A portrait of Augustine in his mayoral robes can be seen in the Blackfriar’s wing of St. Andrew’s Hall.

Kett’s Rebellion

During Kett’s Rebellion in 1549, Augustine Steward played a leading part in negotiations between the rebels and the King’s army. Mayor Thomas Codde, who had been taken prisoner on Mousehold Heath by the rebels, appointed Steward his deputy. The Marquis of Northampton, representing the King, was entertained in Steward’s house. A plaque on the cathedral wall marks the spot, not far from Augustine’s house, where the rebels killed Lord Sheffield and Sir Thomas Cornwallis. Some of Kett’s followers ransacked Steward’s house but did not harm him. The Earl of Warwick used the house as his headquarters when he put down the rebellion.

Augustine Steward House

Steward’s home, opposite the cathedral, is a fine, surviving example of a successful Tudor merchant’s trading-house with goods stored in the stone undercroft and a shop or workshop at street level. The family lived in the upper storeys. Augustine’s house is jettied, and the timbers have warped over time giving the house a crooked appearance. An upper wing of brick, timber and plaster is built across Tombland Alley. Here you can see Augustine’s merchant mark and that of the mercer’s guild embossed on a corner stone, together with the date, 1549. Through the arch, the old house timbers are exposed and the carpenters’ marks can be seen, denoting the order in which the timbers were assembled on-site after being pre-cut in a timber yard. After Steward’s death in 1571, the house became in turn, a butcher’s, a broker’s, an antique dealer’s, a bookshop and a coffee house. At present it houses several antique dealers. Allegedly, there are underground passages leading from the crypt to the Cathedral and also to St. Gregory’s church. The ghost of a ‘Lady in Grey,’ a 1578 plague victim, is said to haunt the house.

A man of property

Augustine Steward owned Norfolk manors at Gowthorpe and at Welborne. His estate around Tombland extended along the north and west sides of St. George’s churchyard into Prince’s Street and included the site of an ancient inn. In later life he resided in a large, quadrangle house that he had built on Elm Hill, on the site of Paston Place originally owned by the Paston family. In 1507 all the houses on Elm Hill, except the modern Briton’s Arms, had been destroyed by fire. Augustine’s new house occupied the area now sub-divided into numbers 20, 22, 24 and 26. The carved beam over the archway of Crown Court bears Augustine Steward’s merchant mark on the right and the arms of the mercer’s guild on the left. Augustine Steward was buried in the church of St Peter Hungate.

Footnote

The house on Tombland where Augustine Steward was born still exists and has been called Augustine Steward House. It is generally reputed to date to 1530, however Marion Hardy, in an unpublished biography of Steward, discloses an earlier date for the house in the 1504 will of Augustine’s father, in which the house was mentioned as the location of Steward’s birth in 1491. Perhaps the 1491 house was damaged in the 1507 fires of Norwich and Augustine Steward re-built in 1530.

Further Reading
Blomefield F, The History of the City and County of Norwich, Volume 2. (Norwich 1745).
Hardy, M. Austen Steward of Norwich, unpublished partial manuscript.
Jones, W. H. A Quaint Corner of Old Norwich: Samson and Hercules and AugustineSteward’s Houses, Norwich, 1900.
Kennet, H. Elm Hill, Norwich: The Story of its Tudor Buildings and the People who Lived in them, ecollectit Ltd, Harleston, 2006.
Rawcliffe, C. and R. Wilson, (eds), Medieval Norwich, Hambledon and London, London, 2004.
Solomons, G. Stories Behind the Plaques of Norwich, Capricorn Books, Cantley,1981.

From “Genealogies of Virginia Families” vol. 5, page 546. Eldest son, Mercer, sheriff 1526, mayor 1534, 1546, 1556, M.P. 1541. Buried 1571 St. Peter Hungate.

Nicholas Sotherton Mayor of Norwich 11th Great-Grandfather

July 12, 2018 3 Comments

Nicholas (Mayor) Sotherton

Nicholas (Mayor) Sotherton

My eleventh great-grandfather, Nicholas Sotherton, was a grocer by trade. He married Agnes, by whom he had six sons and five daughters.

Nicholas was sheriff in 1530 and Mayor in 1539. For twelve years he was a magistrate over which period he amassed a considerable fortune. He owned properties in both the Maddermarket parish (Strangers Hall), Hellesdon and Ludham

The Sothertons moved to the “Strangers Hall” after Thomas Caus. The property is now open to the public who can view Nicholas’s handiwork.. In particular in the 1530s he installed a crown-post roof and a stone-mullioned bay window in the Great Hall. He also had the external stone steps and porch built to give direct access to the hall without passing through the cellars beneath. Sotherton’s merchant’s mark and coat of arms can still be seen on the screen and on the carved roof timbers.
He has also left his merchant’s mark carved on the right-hand side of the oak fireplace beam in the “Sotherton Room.”

The undercroft at Strangers’ Hall is thought to date from the 1320s when Ralph de Middelton owned a house on this site. The undercroft was used to securely store, and possibly display, goods for sale.

The house on this site was seen as a prestigious dwelling and many merchants and mayors made their mark on the building – remodelling and extending it to reflect their wealth and status.

It is thought that the Great Hall was built during the 15th century, when William Barley, a mercer (cloth merchant) lived here.

During the 16th century, the house was owned by Norwich grocer and mayor, Thomas Sotherton and it is as a result of his entrepreneurism that the house eventually became known as Strangers’ Hall.

The first ‘strangers’ were Dutch, Walloon and Flemish refugee weavers who fled the low countries in the 16th century as a result of the persecution of Dutch Calvinists by their Spanish (Catholic) rulers.

Under Elizabeth I, England was a Protestant country and so welcomed the refugees. The asylum seekers first settled in Sandwich, Kent, in 1565. However Thomas Sotherton was keen to encourage these skilled workers to settle in Norwich because their skills in textile weaving made the immigrants of immense economic value. Documents show that some may have lodged at Strangers’ Hall and much of the prosperity of Norfolk after this period can be traced to this influx of refugees.

The Sotherton family made extensive improvements to the house, installing the crown post roof and stone-mullioned bay window. The front door, vaulted porch and steps were added to give direct access to the Great Hall without passing through the cellars.

Strangers Hall

Strangers Hall

Strangers Hall

Strangers Hall

Nicholas died in 1540 and is buried in St John Maddermarket , Agnes survived until 1576. In his will Nicholas directed a priest “honest and well learned to sing for him and to preach the word of God for three years ”

From Website: Norwich Historic Churches
http://www.norwich-churches.org/monuments/Nicholas%20Sotherton%201540/Nicholas%20Sotherton.shtm

Nicholas (Mayor) Sotherton (1485 – 1540)
11th great-grandfather
Thomas Sotherton (1523 – 1583)
son of Nicholas (Mayor) Sotherton
Augustine Jarnigo Sotherton (1553 – 1585)
son of Thomas Sotherton
Elizabeth Southerton (1582 – 1628)
daughter of Augustine Jarnigo Sotherton
Margaret Warner (1615 – 1649)
daughter of Elizabeth Southerton
Captain William GARTON (1635 – 1709)
son of Margaret Warner
Margaret Garton (1678 – 1773)
daughter of Captain William GARTON
Thomas Morris (1730 – 1791)
son of Margaret Garton
Joanna Morris (1762 – 1839)
daughter of Thomas Morris
John Samuel Taylor (1798 – 1873)
son of Joanna Morris
William Ellison Taylor (1839 – 1918)
son of John Samuel Taylor
George Harvey Taylor (1884 – 1941)
son of William Ellison Taylor
Ruby Lee Taylor (1922 – 2008)
daughter of George Harvey Taylor
Pamela Morse
I am  the daughter of Ruby Lee Taylor

He and Agnes are buried at St. John Baptist’s Church in Madder-Market, where this very fancy monument can be found today:

St. John Baptist's Church in Madder-Market

St. John Baptist’s Church in Madder-Market

 St. John Baptist's Church in Madder-Market

St. John Baptist’s Church in Madder-Market

On a mural monument on the south side of the altar,
Effigies of a man and woman, Sotherton quartering Steward,Norwich city, and nebulé a chief quarterly, one and four, a lion of England, two and three or, two roses gul. on each quarter.
Lege, Vir, ac Uxor, Titulo Nicolaus et Agnes, Gente Sothertoni, Quos humus una tegit, Sexta ad viginti confecit Junius illam Nona November Luce peremit eum. Illum annus Domini qui quadragesimus auxit Mille et quingentos jussit adire deum. Octo hijs trigintaque Annos super addidit illa, Quos omnes Viduo vidit abire thoro, Ille Urbis fuerat Pretor cum viveret hujus, Et bis sex Capitum non sine laude Pater; E quibus occumbens natos sex, Filiolasque Quatuor, Uxori liquerat ille sue.
http://www.british-history.ac.uk/topographical-hist-norfolk/vol4/pp287-329

Captain William Garton, Sixth Great-Grandfather

July 8, 2018 1 Comment

Landcaster County

Landcaster County

Garton Bible records show Capt. William Garton’s father to be John Garton born 1615 and died 1698. He may be the son of a John Garton of Kingston-Upon-Hull (a wealthy merchant) who married Ann Hobson in 1614,

This Bible has an unbroken chain of possession in the same family. Captain William Garton was a planter, residing in Lancaster County, where he bought land in 1673. He is the oldest proven Garton in the line.

William Garton (1635 – 1709)
6th great-grandfather
Margaret Garton (1678 – 1773)
daughter of William Garton
Thomas Morris (1730 – 1791)
son of Margaret Garton
Joanna Morris (1762 – 1839)
daughter of Thomas Morris
John Samuel Taylor (1798 – 1873)
son of Joanna Morris
William Ellison Taylor (1839 – 1918)
son of John Samuel Taylor
George Harvey Taylor (1884 – 1941)
son of William Ellison Taylor
Ruby Lee Taylor (1922 – 2008)
daughter of George Harvey Taylor
Pamela Morse
I am the daughter of Ruby Lee Taylor
William was recorded in Nell M. Nugent’s “Cavaliers & Pioneers” — as William Garret with 100 acres in Lancaster County, Virginia on Fleet’s Bay on the south side of Tabb’s Creek, 20 December 1667. This land was part of 400 acres granted to George Thompson, 11 March 1657, who sold it to William Angell.
Uriah Angell, heir of William Angell sold the land to William Garret 17 September 1661. William Garton was listed with 2 tithables in Lancaster County, Colony of Virginia starting with 1671.
He purchased 100 acres in Lancaster County from John Boatman on 5 October 1674. In 1681 William purchased 200 acres ” beginning at the mouth of Nanty Poyson Creek” from Thomas and Roberta Martin. William Garton was on Lancaster Tithable list from 1670 through 1709.
He was appointed for horse service in Lancaster County, Virginia Colony 14 December 1687. He left a will in Christ Church Parish, Lancaster County, Viriginia Colony.

Will Of Captain William Garton, Will Book 10, pages 63-66, rec’d 8 Feb 1710.
“In the name of God, Amen, I Will Garton, of the parish of Christ Church in the County of Lancaster in Virginia, being sick, but in perfect memory, God be praised, I do make this my last will and testament, in manner and form following.
First – I bequeath my soul to Almighty God that made it, hoping to be saved by the meritorious death and resurrection of our Saviour Jesus Christ, my redeemer.
Item – to my son URIAH GARTON I bequeath a parcel of land beginning at a Pine tree at the head of the first long branch issuing out of Nanty Poyson Creek, running northeast to a corner tree at the first little branch that issues out of Deuber Cove.
Item – to my son JAMES GARTON I bequeath a parcel of land beginning in Black Sows Neck near Carel’s line so running up Carel’s line to a corner Maple northeast upon a marked line to a corner Red Oak thence northeast to the head of Deuber Cove concluding all within the said lines aforesaid.
Item- to my son ANTHONY GARTON I bequeath a parcel of land beginning at a corner Red Oak from thence to a corner stone in Tark [or Tarll].
Item – to my daughter KATHERINE GARTON I bequeath a parcel of land beginning at a Red Oak at the head of the spring branch issuing out of Tab’s Creek, all concluding within the aforesaid courses and corner line.
Item – All my land bequeathed to my sons and daughter aforementioned I bequeath to them and their heirs forever.
Item – It is my will that my three negroes shall tarry upon the plantation I now live upon, till my debts is paid and then to be equally divided along with my personal estate among my sons and daughters MARGARET and KATHERINE GARTON.
Item – to ESTHER MUGG, I bequeath a full share of my personal estate with my sons and daughters aforementioned if she comes.
I do appoint my sons and daughters aforementioned to see this my last will and testament performed.
Witness my hand and soul this twentieth day of December One Thousand Seven Hundred and Nine.
his
Will [+] Garton
Witnesses mark –
Murler [+] Noulin
William Buttery
Katherine (+) Buttery
Elizabeth [+] Rebelow
Item – To my sons and daughters I bequeath all bounds of Thomas Thompson’s patent lying between Tab’s Creek and Nanty Poyson Creek.
Item – To my son-in-law, Will Cutter, I bequeath more ______ which is on my plantation.

 

Chief Amatoya “Water Conjurer”, 11th Great-Grandfather

July 4, 2018

Chief Amatoya "Water Conjurer"

Chief Amatoya “Water Conjurer”

Chief Amatoya "Water Conjurer"

Chief Amatoya “Water Conjurer”

My 11th great-grandfather was half British and half Shawnee.  He married a Shawnee woman and lived as a leader of her tribe. Natives were treated very badly by the colonists, who normally thought of them as inferior.  This is one success story I am pleased to have in my family’s history.

Trader Carpenter (Amatoya / Moytoy I) married a Shawnee named Locha in 1668. Trader’s sister Pasmere Carpenter married the grandfather of Cornstalk Hokolesqua (Shawnee) in 1660. That same year the clan was driven south by the Iroquois. They moved along the Tennessee river, starting the villages of Running Water (where Thomas died in 1675), Nickajack, Lookout Mountain, Crowtown and Chota. Chota was created as a merging place of refuge for people of all tribes, history or color. It became similar to a capital for the Cherokee Nation. These villages had grown to about 2000 people by 1670 when the Carpenter clan moved to Great Tellico. Here Trader (Amatoya / Motoy I) married Quatsy of the Wolf Clan in 1680. Though Amatoya (Trader) was chief of the above mentioned villages, it was his son Moytoy II (sometimes called “Trader-Tom”) most people refer to as Moytoy and who many claim was crowned “Emperor of the Cherokee”.

CHRONOLOGY
1540
Hernando De Soto’s expedition to the Mississippi River is the first time Europeans are seen by American Indians in Kentucky.
1629
British colonists in Virginia establish a trade network with Cherokee living in the Appalachian Mountains.
1690
King William’s War begins.
1697
The Ryswick Treaty is signed at the end of King William’s War. Territories remain the same as before the War.

1702
The Cherokees and Creeks side with the French during Queen Anne’s War.
1716
Cherokee strengthen their alliance with the British.
1717
This date is engraved in a sandstone rockshelter in eastern Kentucky.
1730
Cherokee Chiefs Attakullakulla, Clogoittah, Kollannah, Onancona, Oukah Ulah, Skalilosken Ketagustah, and Tathtowe travel to Great Britain with Alexander Cuming.
1722
The Treaty of Albany is made between the Haudenosaunee and Great Britain. The Haudenosaunee are joined by the Tuscarora and they expand by alliance and conquest to control an area from southern Canada to Kentucky.

Chief Amatoya “Water Conjurer” (Trader Tom CARPENTER) aka MOYTOY I (1635 – 1693)
11th great-grandfather
Aganonitsi Quatsy Woman Wolf ClanTellico Cherokee Tellico (1650 – 1692)
daughter of Chief Amatoya “Water Conjurer” (Trader Tom CARPENTER) aka MOYTOY I
Delaware Indian Fivekiller (1674 – 1741)
son of Aganonitsi Quatsy Woman Wolf ClanTellico Cherokee Tellico
Solomon John Cherokee Kimborough (1665 – 1720)
son of Delaware Indian Fivekiller
Mourning Kimbrough (1689 – 1756)
daughter of Solomon John Cherokee Kimborough
Jane Jeanette Little (1713 – 1764)
daughter of Mourning Kimbrough
Andrew Armour (1740 – 1801)
son of Jane Jeanette Little
William Armor (1775 – 1852)
son of Andrew Armour
William Armer (1790 – 1837)
son of William Armor
Thomas Armer (1825 – 1900)
son of William Armer
Lucinda Jane Armer (1847 – 1939)
daughter of Thomas Armer
George Harvey Taylor (1884 – 1941)
son of Lucinda Jane Armer
Ruby Lee Taylor (1922 – 2008)
daughter of George Harvey Taylor
Pamela Morse
I am the daughter of Ruby Lee Taylor

Amatoya Trader Moytoy was a half white half Shawnee who went on to be a prominent chief and leader for the Cherokee people.  His family line would lead the Cherokee for many years to come.  This was a testement to the views of the Cherokee people before being abused by the English for many years.  They took in a English settler as one of there own, He wed a Shawnee woman and became a member of the tribe.

Princess Cleopatra, Pocahontas’s Sister

June 26, 2018

 

Cleopatra married Opechancanough who was her father’s adopted brother and her adopted uncle

Matachanna traveled to England to be with her half-sister, Pocohontas, before she died. Matachanna went back to Virginia where she lived and died.

Cleopatra Powhatan the Shawano was born in 1590, near Jamestown colony, and died in 1680

Cleopatra Powhatan was half sister of Pocahontas

Going back to the era of John Smith . . . In the late 1500s/early 1600s a Powatan chief name Wahunsunacock [one of numerous variant spellings] had united some 30 Alonquian tribes into a powerful confederation. He had created the empire through conquest and alliances. He actually ruled as an emperor, not just a tribal chief. When the Jamestown colonists arrived, Wahunsunacock’s domain encompassed the entire region that was to become Virginia. Wahunsunacock did not use a title other than chief of the Powhatans. The colonists referred to him as simply “The Powhatan”, denoting his position as emperor over numerous tribal chiefs of the Powhatan nation. The Powhatan was not friendly toward the colonists, seeing them as encroachers.

Wahunsunacock’s younger brother, or half-brother, Opechanacanough, was the tribal chief who captured John Smith. He immediately took the captive Smith to Emperor Wahunsunacock who imposed the death sentence. Tradition holds that Wahunsunacock’s daughter Matoaka “LIttle Snow Feather”, nicknamed Pocahantas or “Playful One”, pleaded for her father to spare John Smith’s life. Pocahantas became an emissary between her father and the colonists and as such was instrumental in providing the food which saved them during the hard winter. The colonists, in turn, showed their appreciation by capturing and holding Pocahantas for ransom. After they had extracted the full ransom from Wahunsunacock, then they forged an alliance with him by marrying Pocahantas to John Wolfe, a planter in the Jamestown colony who is credited with introducing tobacco as a cash crop.

That much is familiar history. Then comes the chapter that is really relevant to our family. At the death of the elderly Wahunsunacock, his younger brother [it’s uncertain if he was a brother or a half-brother] Opchanacanough became successor to Wahunsunacock as emperor. As such, he is frequently also called The Powhatan. To distinguish between the two men I have chosen to use the technically accurate term “Emperor” for Wahunsunacock and “Chief” for Opechanacanough, since Opechanacanough was promoted from a “chief” to succeed Wahunsunacock who had forged the “empire”. In reading other histories, however, it is necessary to note that some writers use the term Powhatan for both brothers interchangeably which is unnecessarily confusing and actually incorrect. Sometimes I get the impression that some genealogy researchers do not grasp that they are two different men.

Emperor Wahunsunacock perhaps had hundreds of wives and children. Several of them are noted in historical documents, but none so well as Pocahantas and, to our benefit, her sister Cleopatra. Not only was Cleopatra a daughter of the Emperor, she was wife to the successor Chief/Emperor Opechanacanough. Now if you were paying attention and recall that Opehanacanough and Wahusunacock were brothers/half-brothers, you might realize that she was also Opechanacanough’s niece [or half-niece as the case may be]. They were a royal dynasty and keep in mind that the family lineage was preserved by most Native Americans, as they still do now, through the matriarchal line.

The relationship of Cleopatra and Pocahantas as full sisters is fully documented. After the death of Pocahantas, Pcahantas’ son had to apply for rights to get to visit his Indian relatives and in his written legal request specifically asks to visit his “mother’s sister Cleopatra” by name. Cleopatra obviously was not her Indian name, but rather what she was called by the colonists because since her husband was the successor ruling Chief/Emperor she was in fact Queen. The title seemed especially apropos to the colonists since not only was she Queen, but her exotic dark looks and elaborate trappings also seemed very regal, and reminiscent of the Egyptian queen.

Only I and probably 30 million other people descend from this royal hierarchy. While everyone is eager to prove their ancestry to Pocahantas because of her fame, Cleopatra was the only one to ascend to actual Queen. Pocahantas, for all her fame, was a mere Princess. The modern day Native American line of this family adapted the surname Powhatan from very early times.

Jamestown

Jamestown

Constant Southworth, 10th Great-Grandfather

June 20, 2018 1 Comment

Constant Southworth in the Colony

Constant Southworth in the Colony

Constant Southworth was born circa 1614 at Leyden, So. Holland, Netherlands. He married Elizabeth Collier, daughter of William Collier and Jane Clarke, on 2-Nov-1637 at Duxbury, Plymouth County, Massachusetts. Constant Southworth died on 10-Mar-1678/79 at Duxbury, Plymouth County, Massachusetts.

Constant Southworth, the son of Edward and Alice (Carpenter) Southworth, was probably born at Leiden ca. 1614-16, for his parents married there 28 May 1613 (Leiden Records, as in MD 10:2). The same records show that Edward Southworth had a brother Thomas then living in Leiden. Edward Southworth died, and his widow Alice came to Plymouth and married Gov. William Bradford on 14 August 1623.

Constant came to Plymouth in 1628, probably on the White Angel, and a contemporary account shows that the Plymouth Company paid twenty shillings for his passage and four shillings, eight pence per week for eleven weeks for his food (MHS Collections, 3rd Series, 1:199). It is assumed that he, and his brother Thomas, who must have come over later, lived with their mother and step-father, Governor Bradford. The Southworth family was apparently of gentle birth, but claims that Edward Southworth was identical with the Edward Southworth, son of Thomas and Rosamond (Lister) Southworth, or Samlesbury Hall, Lancashire, are not adequately supported. Constant Southworth married Elizabeth Coller daughter of William Collier (PCR 1:68). In his will, dated 27 February 1678/79, inventory 15 March 1678/79, he named his wife Elizabeth, son Edward; son Nathaniel; son William; daughter Mercy Freeman; daughter Alice Church, daughter Mary Alden daughter Elizabeth Southworth provided she did not marry William Fobes; daughter Priscilla Southworth; grandson Constant cousin Elizabeth Howland; and his brother Thomas. Constant held many important posts, including treasure, and ensign in the Duxbury military company.

Constant Southworth (1615 – 1679)
10th great-grandfather
Alice Southworth (1645 – 1719)
daughter of Constant Southworth
Elizabeth Church (1665 – 1691)
daughter of Alice Southworth
William Little Jr (1685 – 1756)
son of Elizabeth Church
Jane Jeanette Little (1713 – 1764)
daughter of William Little Jr
Andrew Armour (1740 – 1801)
son of Jane Jeanette Little
William Armor (1775 – 1852)
son of Andrew Armour
William Armer (1790 – 1837)
son of William Armor
Thomas Armer (1825 – 1900)
son of William Armer
Lucinda Jane Armer (1847 – 1939)
daughter of Thomas Armer
George Harvey Taylor (1884 – 1941)
son of Lucinda Jane Armer
Ruby Lee Taylor (1922 – 2008)
daughter of George Harvey Taylor
Pamela Morse
I am the daughter of Ruby Lee Taylor

Constant Southworth was born about 1614, based on his date of marriage. He died on March 11, 1678/9, in Duxbury. His ship was possibly White Angel, 1628

He lived in Holland. Constant Southworth was the son of Edward and Alice (Carpenter) Southworth, married in Leiden on May 28, 1613. His father was a say worker [weaver] there.

The family attempted to emigrate to New England in 1620, but apparently abandoned the voyage at London. In August 1620, Robert Cushman wrote a letter to Edward Southworth, the father, addressing it to Heneage House in London. It is unclear whether Edward Southworth died there or returned to Leiden.

Alice Southworth, the mother, emigrated to Plymouth Colony in 1623, leaving her two sons behind, either in England or Leiden. She probably left them with their Aunt Julia, the aunt who brought them both over in 1628. Alice Southworth married Governor William Bradford as his second wife that same year, soon after arriving.

Constant came to Plymouth in 1628, where he was admitted a freeman on January 1, 1637/8.

Constant Southworth married Elizabeth Collier on November 2, 1637, in Plymouth and had eight children. She died after February 20, 1678/9.

Constant’s brother, Thomas, is my paternal 10th great-grandfather.  Their mother, Alice Carpenter, came to Plymouth a widow and married Governor Bradford in the first year after arrival.

Thomas Southworth (1617 – 1669)
10th great-grandfather
Elizabeth Southworth (1645 – 1716)
daughter of Thomas Southworth
Elizabeth Howland (1673 – 1724)
daughter of Elizabeth Southworth
Eleazer Hamblin (1699 – 1771)
son of Elizabeth Howland
Sarah Hamblin (1721 – 1814)
daughter of Eleazer Hamblin
Mercy Hazen (1747 – 1819)
daughter of Sarah Hamblin
Martha Mead (1784 – 1860)
daughter of Mercy Hazen
Abner Morse (1808 – 1838)
son of Martha Mead
Daniel Rowland Morse (1838 – 1910)
son of Abner Morse
Jason A Morse (1862 – 1932)
son of Daniel Rowland Morse
Ernest Abner Morse (1890 – 1965)
son of Jason A Morse
Richard Arden Morse (1920 – 2004)
son of Ernest Abner Morse
Pamela Morse
I am the daughter of Richard Arden Morse

%d bloggers like this: